English
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

Aerius (desloratadine) – Summary of product characteristics - R06AX27

Updated on site: 05-Oct-2017

1.NAME OF THE MEDICINAL PRODUCT

Aerius 5 mg film-coated tablets

2.QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE COMPOSITION

Each tablet contains 5 mg desloratadine.

Excipient(s) with known effect:

This medicine contains lactose.

For the full list of excipients, see section 6.1.

3.PHARMACEUTICAL FORM

Film-coated tablets

4.CLINICAL PARTICULARS

4.1Therapeutic indications

Aerius is indicated in adults and adolescents aged 12 years and older for the relief of symptoms associated with:

-allergic rhinitis (see section 5.1)

-urticaria (see section 5.1)

4.2Posology and method of administration

Posology

Adults and adolescents (12 years of age and over)

The recommended dose of Aerius is one tablet once a day.

Intermittent allergic rhinitis (presence of symptoms for less than 4 days per week or for less than 4 weeks) should be managed in accordance with the evaluation of patient’s disease history and the

treatment could be discontinued after symptoms are resolved and reinitiated upon their reappearance. In persistent allergic rhinitis (presence of symptoms for 4 days or more per week and for more than 4 weeks), continued treatment may be proposed to the patients during the allergen exposure periods.

Paediatric population

There is limited clinical trial efficacy experience with the use of desloratadine in adolescents 12 through 17 years of age (see sections 4.8 and 5.1).

The safety and efficacy of Aerius 5 mg film-coated tablets in children below the age of 12 years have not been established. No data are available.

Method of administration

Oral use.

The dose can be taken with or without food.

4.3Contraindications

Hypersensitivity to the active substance, to any of the excipients listed in section 6.1, or to loratadine.

4.4Special warnings and precautions for use

In the case of severe renal insufficiency, Aerius should be used with caution (see section 5.2).

Desloratadine should be administered with caution in patients with medical or familial history of seizures, and mainly young children, being more susceptible to develop new seizures under desloratadine treatment. Healthcare providers may consider discontinuing desloratadine in patients who experience a seizure while on treatment.

Patients with rare hereditary problems of galactose intolerance, the Lapp lactase deficiency or glucose-galactose malabsorption should not take this medicine.

4.5Interaction with other medicinal products and other forms of interaction

No clinically relevant interactions were observed in clinical trials with desloratadine tablets in which erythromycin or ketoconazole were co-administered (see section 5.1).

Paediatric population

Interaction studies have only been performed in adults.

In a clinical pharmacology trial, Aerius tablets taken concomitantly with alcohol did not potentiate the performance impairing effects of alcohol (see section 5.1). However, cases of alcohol intolerance and intoxication have been reported during post-marketing use. Therefore, caution is recommended if alcohol is taken concomitantly.

4.6Fertility, pregnancy and lactation

Pregnancy

A large amount of data on pregnant women (more than 1,000 pregnancy outcomes) indicate no malformative nor foeto/ neonatal toxicity of desloratadine. Animal studies do not indicate direct or indirect harmful effects with respect to reproductive toxicity (see section 5.3). As a precautionary measure, it is preferable to avoid the use of Aerius during pregnancy.

Breast-feeding

Desloratadine has been identified in breastfed newborns/infants of treated women. The effect of desloratadine on newborns/infants is unknown. A decision must be made whether to discontinue breast-feeding or to discontinue/abstain from Aerius therapy taking into account the benefit of breast feeding for the child and the benefit of therapy for the woman.

Fertility

There are no data available on male and female fertility.

4.7Effects on ability to drive and use machines

Aerius has no or negligible influence on the ability to drive and use machines based on clinical trials. Patients should be informed that most people do not experience drowsiness. Nevertheless, as there is individual variation in response to all medicinal products, it is recommended that patients are advised not to engage in activities requiring mental alertness, such as driving a car or using machines, until they have established their own response to the medicinal product.

4.8Undesirable effects

Summary of the safety profile

In clinical trials in a range of indications including allergic rhinitis and chronic idiopathic urticaria, at the recommended dose of 5 mg daily, undesirable effects with Aerius were reported in 3 % of patients

in excess of those treated with placebo. The most frequent of adverse reactions reported in excess of placebo were fatigue (1.2 %), dry mouth (0.8 %) and headache (0.6 %).

Paediatric population

In a clinical trial with 578 adolescent patients, 12 through 17 years of age, the most common adverse event was headache; this occurred in 5.9 % of patients treated with desloratadine and 6.9 % of patients receiving placebo.

Tabulated list of adverse reactions

The frequency of the clinical trial adverse reactions reported in excess of placebo and other undesirable effects reported during the post-marketing period are listed in the following table. Frequencies are defined as very common (≥ 1/10), common (≥ 1/100 to < 1/10), uncommon

(≥ 1/1,000 to < 1/100), rare (≥ 1/10,000 to < 1/1,000), very rare (< 1/10,000) and not known (cannot be estimated from the available data).

System Organ Class

Frequency

Adverse reactions seen with Aerius

Psychiatric disorders

Very rare

Hallucinations

 

Not known

Abnormal behaviour, aggression

Nervous system disorders

Common

Headache

 

Very rare

Dizziness, somnolence, insomnia,

 

 

psychomotor hyperactivity, seizures

Cardiac disorders

Very rare

Tachycardia, palpitations

 

Not known

QT prolongation

Gastrointestinal disorders

Common

Dry mouth

 

Very rare

Abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting,

 

 

dyspepsia, diarrhoea

Hepatobiliary disorders

Very rare

Elevations of liver enzymes,

 

 

increased bilirubin, hepatitis

 

Not known

Jaundice

Skin and subcutaneous tissue

Not known

Photosensitivity

disorders

 

 

Musculoskeletal and

Very rare

Myalgia

connective tissue disorders

 

 

General disorders and

Common

Fatigue

administration site conditions

Very rare

Hypersensitivity reactions (such as

 

 

anaphylaxis, angioedema, dyspnoea,

 

 

pruritus, rash, and urticaria)

 

Not known

Asthenia

Paediatric population

Other undesirable effects reported during the post-marketing period in paediatric patients with an unknown frequency included QT prolongation, arrhythmia, bradycardia, abnormal behaviour, and aggression.

Reporting of suspected adverse reactions

Reporting suspected adverse reactions after authorisation of the medicinal product is important. It allows continued monitoring of the benefit/risk balance of the medicinal product. Healthcare professionals are asked to report any suspected adverse reactions via the national reporting system listed in Appendix V.

4.9Overdose

The adverse event profile associated with overdosage, as seen during post-marketing use, is similar to that seen with therapeutic doses, but the magnitude of the effects can be higher.

Treatment

In the event of overdose, consider standard measures to remove unabsorbed active substance. Symptomatic and supportive treatment is recommended.

Desloratadine is not eliminated by haemodialysis; it is not known if it is eliminated by peritoneal dialysis.

Symptoms

Based on a multiple dose clinical trial, in which up to 45 mg of desloratadine was administered (nine times the clinical dose), no clinically relevant effects were observed.

Paediatric population

The adverse event profile associated with overdosage, as seen during post-marketing use, is similar to that seen with therapeutic doses, but the magnitude of the effects can be higher.

5.PHARMACOLOGICAL PROPERTIES

5.1Pharmacodynamic properties

Pharmacotherapeutic group: antihistamines – H1 antagonist, ATC code: R06A X27

Mechanism of action

Desloratadine is a non-sedating, long-acting histamine antagonist with selective peripheral H1- receptor antagonist activity. After oral administration, desloratadine selectively blocks peripheral histamine H1-receptors because the substance is excluded from entry to the central nervous system.

Desloratadine has demonstrated antiallergic properties from in vitro studies. These include inhibiting the release of proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-13 from human mast cells/basophils, as well as inhibition of the expression of the adhesion molecule P-selectin on endothelial cells. The clinical relevance of these observations remains to be confirmed.

Clinical efficacy and safety

In a multiple dose clinical trial, in which up to 20 mg of desloratadine was administered daily for 14 days, no statistically or clinically relevant cardiovascular effect was observed. In a clinical

pharmacology trial, in which desloratadine was administered at a dose of 45 mg daily (nine times the clinical dose) for ten days, no prolongation of QTc interval was seen.

No clinically relevant changes in desloratadine plasma concentrations were observed in multiple-dose ketoconazole and erythromycin interaction trials.

Desloratadine does not readily penetrate the central nervous system. In controlled clinical trials, at the recommended dose of 5 mg daily, there was no excess incidence of somnolence as compared to placebo. Aerius given at a single daily dose of 7.5 mg did not affect psychomotor performance in clinical trials. In a single dose study performed in adults, desloratadine 5 mg did not affect standard measures of flight performance including exacerbation of subjective sleepiness or tasks related to flying.

In clinical pharmacology trials, co-administration with alcohol did not increase the alcohol-induced impairment in performance or increase in sleepiness. No significant differences were found in the psychomotor test results between desloratadine and placebo groups, whether administered alone or with alcohol.

In patients with allergic rhinitis, Aerius was effective in relieving symptoms such as sneezing, nasal discharge and itching, as well as ocular itching, tearing and redness, and itching of palate. Aerius effectively controlled symptoms for 24 hours.

Paediatric population

The efficacy of Aerius tablets has not been clearly demonstrated in trials with adolescent patients 12 through 17 years of age.

In addition to the established classifications of seasonal and perennial, allergic rhinitis can alternatively be classified as intermittent allergic rhinitis and persistent allergic rhinitis according to the duration of symptoms. Intermittent allergic rhinitis is defined as the presence of symptoms for less than 4 days per week or for less than 4 weeks. Persistent allergic rhinitis is defined as the presence of symptoms for 4 days or more per week and for more than 4 weeks.

Aerius was effective in alleviating the burden of seasonal allergic rhinitis as shown by the total score of the rhino-conjunctivitis quality of life questionnaire. The greatest amelioration was seen in the domains of practical problems and daily activities limited by symptoms.

Chronic idiopathic urticaria was studied as a clinical model for urticarial conditions, since the underlying pathophysiology is similar, regardless of etiology, and because chronic patients can be more easily recruited prospectively. Since histamine release is a causal factor in all urticarial diseases, desloratadine is expected to be effective in providing symptomatic relief for other urticarial conditions, in addition to chronic idiopathic urticaria, as advised in clinical guidelines.

In two placebo-controlled six week trials in patients with chronic idiopathic urticaria, Aerius was effective in relieving pruritus and decreasing the size and number of hives by the end of the first dosing interval. In each trial, the effects were sustained over the 24 hour dosing interval. As with other antihistamine trials in chronic idiopathic urticaria, the minority of patients who were identified as non-responsive to antihistamines was excluded. An improvement in pruritus of more than 50 % was observed in 55 % of patients treated with desloratadine compared with 19 % of patients treated with placebo. Treatment with Aerius also significantly reduced interference with sleep and daytime function, as measured by a four-point scale used to assess these variables.

5.2Pharmacokinetic properties

Absorption

Desloratadine plasma concentrations can be detected within 30 minutes of administration. Desloratadine is well absorbed with maximum concentration achieved after approximately 3 hours; the terminal phase half-life is approximately 27 hours. The degree of accumulation of desloratadine was consistent with its half-life (approximately 27 hours) and a once daily dosing frequency. The bioavailability of desloratadine was dose proportional over the range of 5 mg to 20 mg.

In a pharmacokinetic trial in which patient demographics were comparable to those of the general seasonal allergic rhinitis population, 4 % of the subjects achieved a higher concentration of desloratadine. This percentage may vary according to ethnic background. Maximum desloratadine concentration was about 3-fold higher at approximately 7 hours with a terminal phase half-life of approximately 89 hours. The safety profile of these subjects was not different from that of the general population.

Distribution

Desloratadine is moderately bound (83 % - 87 %) to plasma proteins. There is no evidence of clinically relevant medicine accumulation following once daily dosing of desloratadine (5 mg to 20 mg) for 14 days.

Biotransformation

The enzyme responsible for the metabolism of desloratadine has not been identified yet, and therefore, some interactions with other medicinal products cannot be fully excluded. Desloratadine does not inhibit CYP3A4 in vivo, and in vitro studies have shown that the medicinal product does not inhibit CYP2D6 and is neither a substrate nor an inhibitor of P-glycoprotein.

Elimination

In a single dose trial using a 7.5 mg dose of desloratadine, there was no effect of food (high-fat, high caloric breakfast) on the disposition of desloratadine. In another study, grapefruit juice had no effect on the disposition of desloratadine.

Renally impaired patients

The pharmacokinetics of desloratadine in patients with chronic renal insufficiency (CRI) was compared with that of healthy subjects in one single-dose study and one multiple dose study. In the single-dose study, the exposure to desloratadine was approximately 2 and 2.5-fold greater in subjects with mild to moderate and severe CRI, respectively, than in healthy subjects. In the multiple-dose study, steady state was reached after Day 11, and compared to healthy subjects the exposure to desloratadine was ~1.5-fold greater in subjects with mild to moderate CRI and ~2.5-fold greater in subjects with severe CRI. In both studies, changes in exposure (AUC and Cmax) of desloratadine and 3-hydroxydesloratadine were not clinically relevant.

5.3Preclinical safety data

Desloratadine is the primary active metabolite of loratadine. Non-clinical studies conducted with desloratadine and loratadine demonstrated that there are no qualitative or quantitative differences in the toxicity profile of desloratadine and loratadine at comparable levels of exposure to desloratadine.

Non-clinical data reveal no special hazard for humans based on conventional studies of safety pharmacology, repeated dose toxicity, genotoxicity, carcinogenic potential, toxicity to reproduction and development. The lack of carcinogenic potential was demonstrated in studies conducted with desloratadine and loratadine.

6.PHARMACEUTICAL PARTICULARS

6.1List of excipients

Tablet core: calcium hydrogen phosphate dihydrate, microcrystalline cellulose, maize starch, talc. Tablet coating: film coat (containing lactose monohydrate, hypromellose, titanium dioxide, macrogol 400, indigotin (E132)), clear coat (containing hypromellose, macrogol 400), carnauba wax, white wax.

6.2Incompatibilities

Not applicable.

6.3Shelf life

2 years

6.4Special precautions for storage

Do not store above 30°C.

Store in the original package.

6.5Nature and contents of container

Aerius is supplied in blisters comprised of laminate blister film with foil lidding.

The materials of the blister consist of a polychlorotrifluoroethylene (PCTFE)/Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) film (product contact surface) with an aluminium foil lidding coated with a vinyl heat seal coat (product contact surface) which is heat sealed.

Packs of 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 10, 14, 15, 20, 21, 30, 50, 90, 100 tablets.

Not all pack sizes may be marketed.

6.6Special precautions for disposal

No special requirements.

7.MARKETING AUTHORISATION HOLDER

Merck Sharp & Dohme Ltd

Hertford Road, Hoddesdon

Hertfordshire EN11 9BU

United Kingdom

8.MARKETING AUTHORISATION NUMBERS

EU/1/00/160/001-013

EU/1/00/160/036

9.DATE OF FIRST AUTHORISATION/RENEWAL OF THE AUTHORISATION

Date of first authorisation: 15 January 2001

Date of latest renewal: 15 January 2006

10.DATE OF REVISION OF THE TEXT

Detailed information on this medicinal product is available on the website of the European Medicines Agency http://www.ema.europa.eu.

1. NAME OF THE MEDICINAL PRODUCT

Aerius 2.5 mg orodispersible tablets

2. QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE COMPOSITION

Each orodispersible tablet contains 2.5 mg desloratadine.

Excipient(s) with known effect:

This medicine contains mannitol and aspartame (E951).

For the full list of excipients, see section 6.1.

3. PHARMACEUTICAL FORM

Orodispersible tablet

Light-red, flat-faced, round, speckled tablets, one side branded with “K”

4. CLINICAL PARTICULARS

4.1 Therapeutic indications

Aerius is indicated in adults, adolescents aged 12 years and older and children aged 6 – 11 years old for the relief of symptoms associated with:

-allergic rhinitis (see section 5.1)

-urticaria (see section 5.1)

4.2 Posology and method of administration

Posology

Adults and adolescents (12 years of age and over)

The recommended dose of Aerius is two 2.5 mg orodispersible tablets placed in the mouth once a day.

Paediatric population

Children 6 to 11 years of age: the recommended dose of Aerius is one 2.5 mg orodispersible tablet placed in mouth once a day.

The safety and efficacy of Aerius 2.5 mg orodispersible tablets in children below the age of 6 years have not been established. No data are available.

There is limited clinical trial efficacy experience with the use of desloratadine in children 6 through 11 years of age (see section 5.2).

There is limited clinical trial efficacy experience with the use of desloratadine in adolescents 12 through 17 years of age (see sections 4.8 and 5.1).

Intermittent allergic rhinitis (presence of symptoms for less than 4 days per week or for less than 4 weeks) should be managed in accordance with the evaluation of patient’s disease history and the

treatment could be discontinued after symptoms are resolved and reinitiated upon their reappearance. In persistent allergic rhinitis (presence of symptoms for 4 days or more per week and for more than 4 weeks), continued treatment may be proposed to the patients during the allergen exposure periods.

Method of administration Oral use.

The dose can be taken with or without food.

Immediately before use, the blister must be carefully peeled open and the dose of orodispersible tablet removed without crushing it. The dose of orodispersible tablet is placed in the mouth where it will disperse immediately. Water or other liquid is not needed to swallow the dose. The dose must be taken as soon as the blister has been opened.

4.3 Contraindications

Hypersensitivity to the active substance, to any of the excipients listed in section 6.1, or to loratadine.

4.4 Special warnings and precautions for use

In the case of severe renal insufficiency, Aerius should be used with caution (see section 5.2).

Desloratadine should be administered with caution in patients with medical or familial history of seizures, and mainly young children, being more susceptible to develop new seizures under desloratadine treatment. Healthcare providers may consider discontinuing desloratadine in patients who experience a seizure while on treatment.

This product contains 1.4 mg of phenylalanine per 2.5 mg dose of Aerius orodispersible tablet. Phenylalanine may be harmful for people with phenylketonuria.

4.5 Interaction with other medicinal products and other forms of interaction

No clinically relevant interactions were observed in clinical trials with desloratadine tablets in which erythromycin or ketoconazole were co-administered (see section 5.1).

Paediatric population

Interaction studies have only been performed in adults.

In a clinical pharmacology trial, Aerius tablets taken concomitantly with alcohol did not potentiate the performance impairing effects of alcohol (see section 5.1). However, cases of alcohol intolerance and intoxication have been reported during post-marketing use. Therefore, caution is recommended if alcohol is taken concomitantly.

4.6 Fertility, pregnancy and lactation

Pregnancy

A large amount of data on pregnant women (more than 1,000 pregnancy outcomes) indicate no malformative nor foeto/ neonatal toxicity of desloratadine. Animal studies do not indicate direct or indirect harmful effects with respect to reproductive toxicity (see section 5.3). As a precautionary measure, it is preferable to avoid the use of Aerius during pregnancy.

Breast-feeding

Desloratadine has been identified in breastfed newborns/infants of treated women. The effect of desloratadine on newborns/infants is unknown. A decision must be made whether to discontinue breast-feeding or to discontinue/abstain from Aerius therapy taking into account the benefit of breast feeding for the child and the benefit of therapy for the woman.

Fertility

There are no data available on male and female fertility.

4.7 Effects on ability to drive and use machines

Aerius has no or negligible influence on the ability to drive and use machines based on clinical trials. Patients should be informed that most people do not experience drowsiness. Nevertheless, as there is individual variation in response to all medicinal products, it is recommended that patients are advised not to engage in activities requiring mental alertness, such as driving a car or using machines, until they have established their own response to the medicinal product.

4.8 Undesirable effects

Summary of the safety profile

In clinical trials, desloratadine in the syrup formulation was administered to a paediatric population. The overall incidence of adverse reactions was similar between the desloratadine syrup and the placebo groups and did not differ significantly than the safety profile seen in adult patients.

In clinical trials in a range of indications including allergic rhinitis and chronic idiopathic urticaria, at the recommended dose of 5 mg daily, undesirable effects with Aerius tablets were reported in 3 % of patients in excess of those treated with placebo. The most frequent of adverse events reported in excess of placebo were fatigue (1.2 %), dry mouth (0.8 %) and headache (0.6 %).

Paediatric population

In a clinical trial with 578 adolescent patients, 12 through 17 years of age, the most common adverse event was headache; this occurred in 5.9 % of patients treated with desloratadine and 6.9 % of patients receiving placebo.

Tabulated list of adverse reactions

The frequency of the clinical trial adverse reactions reported in excess of placebo and other undesirable effects reported during the post-marketing period are listed in the following table. Frequencies are defined as very common (≥ 1/10), common (≥ 1/100 to < 1/10), uncommon

(≥ 1/1,000 to < 1/100), rare (≥ 1/10,000 to < 1/1,000), very rare (< 1/10,000) and not known (cannot be estimated from the available data).

System Organ Class

Frequency

Adverse reactions seen with Aerius

Psychiatric disorders

Very rare

Hallucinations

 

Not known

Abnormal behaviour, aggression

Nervous system disorders

Common

Headache

 

Very rare

Dizziness, somnolence, insomnia,

 

 

psychomotor hyperactivity, seizures

Cardiac disorders

Very rare

Tachycardia, palpitations

 

Not known

QT prolongation

Gastrointestinal disorders

Common

Dry mouth

 

Very rare

Abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting,

 

 

dyspepsia, diarrhoea

Hepatobiliary disorders

Very rare

Elevations of liver enzymes,

 

 

increased bilirubin, hepatitis

 

Not known

Jaundice

Skin and subcutaneous tissue

Not known

Photosensitivity

disorders

 

 

Musculoskeletal and

Very rare

Myalgia

connective tissue disorders

 

 

General disorders and

Common

Fatigue

administration site conditions

Very rare

Hypersensitivity reactions (such as

 

 

anaphylaxis, angioedema, dyspnoea,

 

 

pruritus, rash, and urticaria)

 

Not known

Asthenia

Paediatric population

Other undesirable effects reported during the post-marketing period in paediatric patients with an unknown frequency included QT prolongation, arrhythmia, bradycardia, abnormal behaviour, and aggression.

Reporting of suspected adverse reactions

Reporting suspected adverse reactions after authorisation of the medicinal product is important. It allows continued monitoring of the benefit/risk balance of the medicinal product. Healthcare professionals are asked to report any suspected adverse reactions via the national reporting system listed in Appendix V.

4.9 Overdose

The adverse event profile associated with overdosage, as seen during post-marketing use, is similar to that seen with therapeutic doses, but the magnitude of the effects can be higher.

Treatment

In the event of overdose, consider standard measures to remove unabsorbed active substance. Symptomatic and supportive treatment is recommended.

Desloratadine is not eliminated by haemodialysis; it is not known if it is eliminated by peritoneal dialysis.

Symptoms

Based on a multiple dose clinical trial, in which up to 45 mg of desloratadine was administered (nine times the clinical dose), no clinically relevant effects were observed.

Paediatric population

The adverse event profile associated with overdosage, as seen during post-marketing use, is similar to that seen with therapeutic doses, but the magnitude of the effects can be higher.

5. PHARMACOLOGICAL PROPERTIES

5.1 Pharmacodynamic properties

Pharmacotherapeutic group: antihistamines – H1 antagonist, ATC code: R06A X27

Mechanism of action

Desloratadine is a non-sedating, long-acting histamine antagonist with selective peripheral H1- receptor antagonist activity. After oral administration, desloratadine selectively blocks peripheral histamine H1-receptors because the substance is excluded from entry to the central nervous system.

Desloratadine has demonstrated antiallergic properties from in vitro studies. These include inhibiting the release of proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-13 from human mast cells/basophils, as well as inhibition of the expression of the adhesion molecule P-selectin on endothelial cells. The clinical relevance of these observations remains to be confirmed.

Clinical efficacy and safety

In a multiple dose trial, Aerius orodispersible tablets were well tolerated.

At the recommended dose, Aerius 5 mg orodispersible tablet was found to be bioequivalent to the Aerius 5 mg conventional tablet formulation of desloratadine. Therefore, the efficacy of Aerius orodispersible tablet is expected to be the same as with the Aerius tablet formulation.

In a multiple dose clinical trial, in which up to 20 mg of desloratadine was administered daily for 14 days, no statistically or clinically relevant cardiovascular effect was observed. In a clinical

pharmacology trial, in which desloratadine was administered at a dose of 45 mg daily (nine times the clinical dose) for ten days, no prolongation of QTc interval was seen.

No clinically relevant changes in desloratadine plasma concentrations were observed in multiple-dose, ketoconazole and erythromycin interaction trials.

Desloratadine does not readily penetrate the central nervous system. In clinical trials, at the recommended dose of 5 mg daily, there was no excess incidence of somnolence as compared to placebo. Aerius tablets given at a single daily dose of 7.5 mg did not affect psychomotor performance in clinical trials. In a single dose study performed in adults, desloratadine 5 mg did not affect standard measures of flight performance including exacerbation of subjective sleepiness or tasks related to flying.

In clinical pharmacology trials, co-administration with alcohol did not increase the alcohol-induced impairment in performance or increase in sleepiness. No significant differences were found in the psychomotor test results between desloratadine and placebo groups, whether administered alone or with alcohol.

In patients with allergic rhinitis, Aerius tablets were effective in relieving symptoms such as sneezing, nasal discharge and itching, as well as ocular itching, tearing and redness, and itching of palate. Aerius tablets effectively controlled symptoms for 24 hours.

Paediatric population

The efficacy of Aerius tablets has not been clearly demonstrated in trials with adolescent patients 12 through 17 years of age.

In addition to the established classifications of seasonal and perennial, allergic rhinitis can alternatively be classified as intermittent allergic rhinitis and persistent allergic rhinitis according to the duration of symptoms. Intermittent allergic rhinitis is defined as the presence of symptoms for less than 4 days per week or for less than 4 weeks. Persistent allergic rhinitis is defined as the presence of symptoms for 4 days or more per week and for more than 4 weeks.

Aerius was effective in alleviating the burden of seasonal allergic rhinitis as shown by the total score of the rhino-conjunctivitis quality of life questionnaire. The greatest amelioration was seen in the domains of practical problems and daily activities limited by symptoms.

Chronic idiopathic urticaria was studied as a clinical model for urticarial conditions, since the underlying pathophysiology is similar, regardless of etiology, and because chronic patients can be more easily recruited prospectively. Since histamine release is a causal factor in all urticarial diseases, desloratadine is expected to be effective in providing symptomatic relief for other urticarial conditions, in addition to chronic idiopathic urticaria, as advised in clinical guidelines.

In two placebo-controlled six week trials in patients with chronic idiopathic urticaria, Aerius was effective in relieving pruritus and decreasing the size and number of hives by the end of the first dosing interval. In each trial, the effects were sustained over the 24 hour dosing interval. As with other antihistamine trials in chronic idiopathic urticaria, the minority of patients who were identified as non-responsive to antihistamines was excluded. An improvement in pruritus of more than 50 % was observed in 55 % of patients treated with desloratadine compared with 19 % of patients treated with placebo. Treatment with Aerius also significantly reduced interference with sleep and daytime function, as measured by a four-point scale used to assess these variables.

5.2 Pharmacokinetic properties

Absorption

Desloratadine plasma concentrations can be detected within 30 minutes of administration. Desloratadine is well absorbed with maximum concentration achieved after approximately 3 hours; the terminal phase half-life is approximately 27 hours. The degree of accumulation of desloratadine was consistent with its half-life (approximately 27 hours) and a once daily dosing frequency. The bioavailability of desloratadine was dose proportional over the range of 5 mg to 20 mg.

In a series of pharmacokinetic and clinical trials, 6 % of the subjects reached a higher concentration of desloratadine. The prevalence of this poor metaboliser phenotype was comparable for adult (6 %) and paediatric subjects 2- to 11-year old (6 %), and greater among Blacks (18 % adult, 16 % paediatric) than Caucasians (2 % adult, 3 % paediatric) in both populations however the safety profile of these subjects was not different from that of the general population.

In a multiple-dose pharmacokinetic study conducted with the tablet formulation in healthy adult subjects, four subjects were found to be poor metabolisers of desloratadine. These subjects had a Cmax concentration about 3-fold higher at approximately 7 hours with a terminal phase half-life of approximately 89 hours.

Distribution

Desloratadine is moderately bound (83 % - 87 %) to plasma proteins. There is no evidence of clinically relevant medicine accumulation following once daily dosing of desloratadine (5 mg to 20 mg) for 14 days.

Biotransformation

The enzyme responsible for the metabolism of desloratadine has not been identified yet, and therefore, some interactions with other medicinal products cannot be fully excluded. Desloratadine does not inhibit CYP3A4 in vivo, and in vitro studies have shown that the medicinal product does not inhibit CYP2D6 and is neither a substrate nor an inhibitor of P-glycoprotein.

In single-dose crossover studies of Aerius 5 mg orodispersible tablets with Aerius 5 mg conventional tablets, the formulations were bioequivalent. Aerius 2.5 mg tablets has not been evaluated in paediatric patients however in conjunction with the dose finding studies in paediatrics, the pharmacokinetics data for Aerius orodispersible tablets supports the use of the 2.5 mg dose in paediatric patients 6 to 11 years of age.

Elimination

The presence of food prolongs Tmax for desloratadine from 2.5 to 4 hours and Tmax for 3-OH- desloratadine from 4 to 6 hours. In a separate study, grapefruit juice had no effect on the disposition of desloratadine. Water had no effect on the bioavailability of Aerius orodispersible tablets.

Renally impaired patients

The pharmacokinetics of desloratadine in patients with chronic renal insufficiency (CRI) was compared with that of healthy subjects in one single-dose study and one multiple dose study. In the single-dose study, the exposure to desloratadine was approximately 2 and 2.5-fold greater in subjects with mild to moderate and severe CRI, respectively, than in healthy subjects. In the multiple-dose study, steady state was reached after Day 11, and compared to healthy subjects the exposure to desloratadine was ~1.5-fold greater in subjects with mild to moderate CRI and ~2.5-fold greater in subjects with severe CRI. In both studies, changes in exposure (AUC and Cmax) of desloratadine and 3-hydroxydesloratadine were not clinically relevant.

5.3 Preclinical safety data

Desloratadine is the primary active metabolite of loratadine. Non-clinical studies conducted with desloratadine and loratadine demonstrated that there are no qualitative or quantitative differences in the toxicity profile of desloratadine and loratadine at comparable levels of exposure to desloratadine.

Non-clinical data reveal no special hazard for humans based on conventional studies of safety pharmacology, repeated dose toxicity, genotoxicity, carcinogenic potential, toxicity to reproduction and development. The collective analysis of preclinical and clinical irritation studies for the orodispersible tablet indicate that this formulation in unlikely to pose risk for local irritation with clinical use. The lack of carcinogenic potential was demonstrated in studies conducted with desloratadine and loratadine.

6. PHARMACEUTICAL PARTICULARS

6.1 List of excipients

microcrystalline cellulose pregelatinized starch sodium starch glycolate magnesium stearate

butylated methacrylate copolymer crospovidone

sodium hydrogen carbonate citric acid

colloidal silicon dioxide ferric oxide

mannitol aspartame (E951) flavour Tutti-Frutti

6.2 Incompatibilities

Not applicable.

6.3 Shelf life

2 years

6.4 Special precautions for storage

Store in the original package.

6.5 Nature and contents of container

Aerius orodispersible tablets are supplied in unit dose blisters comprised of laminate blister film with foil lidding.

The blister materials consist of a four layer aluminum foil laminate cold form blister film and a paper backed laminated aluminum foil lidding film.

The cold form blister film is composed of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) film adhesively laminated to an oriented polyamide (OPA) film, adhesively laminated to aluminum foil, adhesively laminated to polyvinyl chloride (PVC) film.

Packs of 5, 6, 10, 12, 15, 18, 20, 30, 50, 60, 90 and 100 orodispersible tablets. Not all pack sizes may be marketed.

6.6 Special precautions for disposal

No special requirements

7. MARKETING AUTHORISATION HOLDER

Merck Sharp & Dohme Ltd

Hertford Road, Hoddesdon

Hertfordshire EN11 9BU

United Kingdom

8. MARKETING AUTHORISATION NUMBERS

EU/1/00/160/037-048

9. DATE OF FIRST AUTHORISATION/RENEWAL OF THE AUTHORISATION

Date of first authorisation: 15 January 2001

Date of latest renewal: 15 January 2006

10. DATE OF REVISION OF THE TEXT

Detailed information on this medicinal product is available on the website of the European Medicines Agency http://www.ema.europa.eu.

1. NAME OF THE MEDICINAL PRODUCT

Aerius 5 mg orodispersible tablets

2. QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE COMPOSITION

Each orodispersible tablet contains 5 mg desloratadine.

Excipient(s) with known effect:

This medicine contains mannitol and aspartame (E951).

For the full list of excipients, see section 6.1.

3. PHARMACEUTICAL FORM

Orodispersible tablet

Light-red, flat-faced, round, speckled tablets, one side branded with “A”

4. CLINICAL PARTICULARS

4.1 Therapeutic indications

Aerius is indicated in adults and adolescents aged 12 years and older for the relief of symptoms associated with:

-allergic rhinitis (see section 5.1)

-urticaria (see section 5.1)

4.2 Posology and method of administration

Posology

Adults and adolescents (12 years of age and over)

The recommended dose of Aerius is one 5 mg orodispersible tablet placed in the mouth once a day.

Intermittent allergic rhinitis (presence of symptoms for less than 4 days per week or for less than 4 weeks) should be managed in accordance with the evaluation of patient’s disease history and the

treatment could be discontinued after symptoms are resolved and reinitiated upon their reappearance. In persistent allergic rhinitis (presence of symptoms for 4 days or more per week and for more than 4 weeks), continued treatment may be proposed to the patients during the allergen exposure periods.

Paediatric population

The safety and efficacy of Aerius 5 mg orodispersible tablets in children below the age of 12 years have not been established. No data are available.

There is limited clinical trial efficacy experience with the use of desloratadine in adolescents 12 through 17 years of age (see sections 4.8 and 5.1).

Method of administration Oral use.

The dose can be taken with or without food.

Immediately before use, the blister must be carefully peeled open and the dose of orodispersible tablet removed without crushing it. The dose of orodispersible tablet is placed in the mouth where it will

disperse immediately. Water or other liquid is not needed to swallow the dose. The dose must be taken as soon as the blister has been opened.

4.3 Contraindications

Hypersensitivity to the active substance, to any of the excipients listed in section 6.1, or to loratadine.

4.4 Special warnings and precautions for use

In the case of severe renal insufficiency, Aerius should be used with caution (see section 5.2).

Desloratadine should be administered with caution in patients with medical or familial history of seizures, and mainly young children, being more susceptible to develop new seizures under desloratadine treatment. Healthcare providers may consider discontinuing desloratadine in patients who experience a seizure while on treatment.

This product contains 2.9 mg of phenylalanine per 5 mg dose of Aerius orodispersible tablet. Phenylalanine may be harmful for people with phenylketonuria.

4.5 Interaction with other medicinal products and other forms of interaction

No clinically relevant interactions were observed in clinical trials with desloratadine tablets in which erythromycin or ketoconazole were co-administered (see section 5.1).

Paediatric population

Interaction studies have only been performed in adults.

In a clinical pharmacology trial, Aerius tablets taken concomitantly with alcohol did not potentiate the performance impairing effects of alcohol (see section 5.1). However, cases of alcohol intolerance and intoxication have been reported during post-marketing use. Therefore, caution is recommended if alcohol is taken concomitantly.

4.6 Fertility, pregnancy and lactation

Pregnancy

A large amount of data on pregnant women (more than 1,000 pregnancy outcomes) indicate no malformative nor foeto/ neonatal toxicity of desloratadine. Animal studies do not indicate direct or indirect harmful effects with respect to reproductive toxicity (see section 5.3). As a precautionary measure, it is preferable to avoid the use of Aerius during pregnancy.

Breast-feeding

Desloratadine has been identified in breastfed newborns/infants of treated women. The effect of desloratadine on newborns/infants is unknown. A decision must be made whether to discontinue breast-feeding or to discontinue/abstain from Aerius therapy taking into account the benefit of breast feeding for the child and the benefit of therapy for the woman.

Fertility

There are no data available on male and female fertility.

4.7 Effects on ability to drive and use machines

Aerius has no or negligible influence on the ability to drive and use machines based on clinical trials. Patients should be informed that most people do not experience drowsiness. Nevertheless, as there is individual variation in response to all medicinal products, it is recommended that patients are advised not to engage in activities requiring mental alertness, such as driving a car or using machines, until they have established their own response to the medicinal product.

4.8 Undesirable effects

Summary of the safety profile

In clinical trials in a range of indications including allergic rhinitis and chronic idiopathic urticaria, at the recommended dose of 5 mg daily, undesirable effects with Aerius tablets were reported in 3 % of patients in excess of those treated with placebo. The most frequent of adverse reactions reported in excess of placebo were fatigue (1.2 %), dry mouth (0.8 %) and headache (0.6 %).

Paediatric population

In a clinical trial with 578 adolescent patients, 12 through 17 years of age, the most common adverse event was headache; this occurred in 5.9 % of patients treated with desloratadine and 6.9 % of patients receiving placebo.

Tabulated list of adverse reactions

The frequency of the clinical trial adverse reactions reported in excess of placebo and other undesirable effects reported during the post-marketing period are listed in the following table. Frequencies are defined as very common (≥ 1/10), common (≥ 1/100 to < 1/10), uncommon

(≥ 1/1,000 to < 1/100), rare (≥ 1/10,000 to < 1/1,000), very rare (< 1/10,000) and not known (cannot be estimated from the available data).

System Organ Class

Frequency

Adverse reactions seen with Aerius

Psychiatric disorders

Very rare

Hallucinations

 

Not known

Abnormal behaviour, aggression

Nervous system disorders

Common

Headache

 

Very rare

Dizziness, somnolence, insomnia,

 

 

psychomotor hyperactivity, seizures

Cardiac disorders

Very rare

Tachycardia, palpitations

 

Not known

QT prolongation

Gastrointestinal disorders

Common

Dry mouth

 

Very rare

Abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting,

 

 

dyspepsia, diarrhoea

Hepatobiliary disorders

Very rare

Elevations of liver enzymes,

 

 

increased bilirubin, hepatitis

 

Not known

Jaundice

Skin and subcutaneous tissue

Not known

Photosensitivity

disorders

 

 

Musculoskeletal and

Very rare

Myalgia

connective tissue disorders

 

 

General disorders and

Common

Fatigue

administration site conditions

Very rare

Hypersensitivity reactions (such as

 

 

anaphylaxis, angioedema, dyspnoea,

 

 

pruritus, rash, and urticaria)

 

Not known

Asthenia

Paediatric population

Other undesirable effects reported during the post-marketing period in paediatric patients with an unknown frequency included QT prolongation, arrhythmia, bradycardia, abnormal behaviour, and aggression.

Reporting of suspected adverse reactions

Reporting suspected adverse reactions after authorisation of the medicinal product is important. It allows continued monitoring of the benefit/risk balance of the medicinal product. Healthcare professionals are asked to report any suspected adverse reactions via the national reporting system listed in Appendix V.

4.9 Overdose

The adverse event profile associated with overdosage, as seen during post-marketing use, is similar to that seen with therapeutic doses, but the magnitude of the effects can be higher.

Treatment

In the event of overdose, consider standard measures to remove unabsorbed active substance. Symptomatic and supportive treatment is recommended.

Desloratadine is not eliminated by haemodialysis; it is not known if it is eliminated by peritoneal dialysis.

Symptoms

Based on a multiple dose clinical trial, in which up to 45 mg of desloratadine was administered (nine times the clinical dose), no clinically relevant effects were observed.

Paediatric population

The adverse event profile associated with overdosage, as seen during post-marketing use, is similar to that seen with therapeutic doses, but the magnitude of the effects can be higher.

5. PHARMACOLOGICAL PROPERTIES

5.1 Pharmacodynamic properties

Pharmacotherapeutic group: antihistamines – H1 antagonist, ATC code: R06A X27

Mechanism of action

Desloratadine is a non-sedating, long-acting histamine antagonist with selective peripheral H1- receptor antagonist activity. After oral administration, desloratadine selectively blocks peripheral histamine H1-receptors because the substance is excluded from entry to the central nervous system.

Desloratadine has demonstrated antiallergic properties from in vitro studies. These include inhibiting the release of proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-13 from human mast cells/basophils, as well as inhibition of the expression of the adhesion molecule P-selectin on endothelial cells. The clinical relevance of these observations remains to be confirmed.

Clinical efficacy and safety

In a multiple dose trial, Aerius orodispersible tablets were well tolerated.

At the recommended dose, Aerius 5 mg orodispersible tablet was found to be bioequivalent to the Aerius 5 mg conventional tablet formulation of desloratadine. Therefore, the efficacy of Aerius orodispersible tablet is expected to be the same as with the Aerius tablet formulation.

In a multiple-dose clinical trial, in which up to 20 mg of desloratadine was administered daily for 14 days, no statistically or clinically relevant cardiovascular effect was observed. In a clinical

pharmacology trial, in which desloratadine was administered at a dose of 45 mg daily (nine times the clinical dose) for ten days, no prolongation of QTc interval was seen.

No clinically relevant changes in desloratadine plasma concentrations were observed in multiple-dose, ketoconazole and erythromycin interaction trials.

Desloratadine does not readily penetrate the central nervous system. In clinical trials, at the recommended dose of 5 mg daily, there was no excess incidence of somnolence as compared to placebo. Aerius tablets given at a single daily dose of 7.5 mg did not affect psychomotor performance

in clinical trials. In a single dose study performed in adults, desloratadine 5 mg did not affect standard measures of flight performance including exacerbation of subjective sleepiness or tasks related to flying.

In clinical pharmacology trials, co-administration with alcohol did not increase the alcohol-induced impairment in performance or increase in sleepiness. No significant differences were found in the psychomotor test results between desloratadine and placebo groups, whether administered alone or with alcohol.

In patients with allergic rhinitis, Aerius tablets were effective in relieving symptoms such as sneezing, nasal discharge and itching, as well as ocular itching, tearing and redness, and itching of palate. Aerius tablets effectively controlled symptoms for 24 hours.

Paediatric population

The efficacy of Aerius tablets has not been clearly demonstrated in trials with adolescent patients 12 through 17 years of age.

In addition to the established classifications of seasonal and perennial, allergic rhinitis can alternatively be classified as intermittent allergic rhinitis and persistent allergic rhinitis according to the duration of symptoms. Intermittent allergic rhinitis is defined as the presence of symptoms for less than 4 days per week or for less than 4 weeks. Persistent allergic rhinitis is defined as the presence of symptoms for 4 days or more per week and for more than 4 weeks.

Aerius was effective in alleviating the burden of seasonal allergic rhinitis as shown by the total score of the rhino-conjunctivitis quality of life questionnaire. The greatest amelioration was seen in the domains of practical problems and daily activities limited by symptoms.

Chronic idiopathic urticaria was studied as a clinical model for urticarial conditions, since the underlying pathophysiology is similar, regardless of etiology, and because chronic patients can be more easily recruited prospectively. Since histamine release is a causal factor in all urticarial diseases, desloratadine is expected to be effective in providing symptomatic relief for other urticarial conditions, in addition to chronic idiopathic urticaria, as advised in clinical guidelines.

In two placebo-controlled six week trials in patients with chronic idiopathic urticaria, Aerius was effective in relieving pruritus and decreasing the size and number of hives by the end of the first dosing interval. In each trial, the effects were sustained over the 24 hour dosing interval. As with other antihistamine trials in chronic idiopathic urticaria, the minority of patients who were identified as non-responsive to antihistamines was excluded. An improvement in pruritus of more than 50 % was observed in 55 % of patients treated with desloratadine compared with 19 % of patients treated with placebo. Treatment with Aerius also significantly reduced interference with sleep and daytime function, as measured by a four-point scale used to assess these variables.

5.2 Pharmacokinetic properties

Absorption

Desloratadine plasma concentrations can be detected within 30 minutes of administration. Desloratadine is well absorbed with maximum concentration achieved after approximately 3 hours; the terminal phase half-life is approximately 27 hours. The degree of accumulation of desloratadine was consistent with its half-life (approximately 27 hours) and a once daily dosing frequency. The bioavailability of desloratadine was dose proportional over the range of 5 mg to 20 mg.

In a series of pharmacokinetic and clinical trials, 6 % of the subjects reached a higher concentration of desloratadine. The prevalence of this poor metaboliser phenotype was greater among Black adults than Caucasian adults (18 % vs. 2 %) however the safety profile of these subjects was not different from that of the general population.

In a multiple-dose pharmacokinetic study conducted with the tablet formulation in healthy adult subjects, four subjects were found to be poor metabolisers of desloratadine. These subjects had a Cmax concentration about 3-fold higher at approximately 7 hours with a terminal phase half-life of approximately 89 hours.

Distribution

Desloratadine is moderately bound (83 % - 87 %) to plasma proteins. There is no evidence of clinically relevant medicine accumulation following once daily dosing of desloratadine (5 mg to 20 mg) for 14 days.

Biotransformation

The enzyme responsible for the metabolism of desloratadine has not been identified yet, and therefore, some interactions with other medicinal products cannot be fully excluded. Desloratadine does not inhibit CYP3A4 in vivo, and in vitro studies have shown that the medicinal product does not inhibit CYP2D6 and is neither a substrate nor an inhibitor of P-glycoprotein.

In single-dose crossover studies of Aerius 5 mg orodispersible tablets with Aerius 5 mg conventional tablets, the formulations were bioequivalent.

Elimination

The presence of food prolongs Tmax for desloratadine from 2.5 to 4 hours and Tmax for 3-OH- desloratadine from 4 to 6 hours. In a separate study, grapefruit juice had no effect on the disposition of desloratadine. Water had no effect on the bioavailability of Aerius orodispersible tablets.

Renally impaired patients

The pharmacokinetics of desloratadine in patients with chronic renal insufficiency (CRI) was compared with that of healthy subjects in one single-dose study and one multiple dose study. In the single-dose study, the exposure to desloratadine was approximately 2 and 2.5-fold greater in subjects with mild to moderate and severe CRI, respectively, than in healthy subjects. In the multiple-dose study, steady state was reached after Day 11, and compared to healthy subjects the exposure to desloratadine was ~1.5-fold greater in subjects with mild to moderate CRI and ~2.5-fold greater in subjects with severe CRI. In both studies, changes in exposure (AUC and Cmax) of desloratadine and 3-hydroxydesloratadine were not clinically relevant.

5.3 Preclinical safety data

Desloratadine is the primary active metabolite of loratadine. Non-clinical studies conducted with desloratadine and loratadine demonstrated that there are no qualitative or quantitative differences in the toxicity profile of desloratadine and loratadine at comparable levels of exposure to desloratadine.

Non-clinical data reveal no special hazard for humans based on conventional studies of safety pharmacology, repeated dose toxicity, genotoxicity, carcinogenic potential, toxicity to reproduction and development. The collective analysis of preclinical and clinical irritation studies for the orodispersible tablet indicate that this formulation is unlikely to pose risk for local irritation with clinical use. The lack of carcinogenic potential was demonstrated in studies conducted with desloratadine and loratadine.

6. PHARMACEUTICAL PARTICULARS

6.1 List of excipients

microcrystalline cellulose pregelatinized starch sodium starch glycolate magnesium stearate

butylated methacrylate copolymer crospovidone

sodium hydrogen carbonate citric acid

colloidal silicon dioxide ferric oxide

mannitol aspartame (E951) flavour Tutti-Frutti

6.2 Incompatibilities

Not applicable.

6.3 Shelf life

2 years

6.4 Special precautions for storage

Store in the original package.

6.5 Nature and contents of container

Aerius orodispersible tablets are supplied in unit dose blisters comprised of laminate blister film with foil lidding.

The blister materials consist of a four layer aluminum foil laminate cold form blister film and a paper backed laminated aluminum foil lidding film.

The cold form blister film is composed of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) film adhesively laminated to an oriented polyamide (OPA) film, adhesively laminated to aluminum foil, adhesively laminated to polyvinyl chloride (PVC) film.

Packs of 5, 6, 10, 12, 15, 18, 20, 30, 50, 60, 90 and 100 orodispersible tablets. Not all pack sizes may be marketed.

6.6 Special precautions for disposal

No special requirements

7. MARKETING AUTHORISATION HOLDER

Merck Sharp & Dohme Ltd

Hertford Road, Hoddesdon

Hertfordshire EN11 9BU

United Kingdom

8. MARKETING AUTHORISATION NUMBERS

EU/1/00/160/049-060

9. DATE OF FIRST AUTHORISATION/RENEWAL OF THE AUTHORISATION

Date of first authorisation: 15 January 2001

Date of latest renewal: 15 January 2006

10. DATE OF REVISION OF THE TEXT

Detailed information on this medicinal product is available on the website of the European Medicines Agency http://www.ema.europa.eu.

1. NAME OF THE MEDICINAL PRODUCT

Aerius 0.5 mg/ml oral solution

2. QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE COMPOSITION

Each ml of oral solution contains 0.5 mg desloratadine.

Excipient(s) with known effect:

This medicinal product contains 150 mg/ml of sorbitol

For the full list of excipients, see section 6.1.

3. PHARMACEUTICAL FORM

Oral solution

4. CLINICAL PARTICULARS

4.1 Therapeutic indications

Aerius is indicated in adults, adolescents and children over the age of 1 year for the relief of symptoms associated with:

-allergic rhinitis (see section 5.1)

-urticaria (see section 5.1)

4.2 Posology and method of administration

Posology

Adults and adolescents (12 years of age and over)

The recommended dose of Aerius is 10 ml (5 mg) oral solution once a day.

Paediatric population

The prescriber should be aware that most cases of rhinitis below 2 years of age are of infectious origin (see section 4.4) and there are no data supporting the treatment of infectious rhinitis with Aerius.

Children 1 through 5 years of age: 2.5 ml (1.25 mg) Aerius oral solution once a day.

Children 6 through 11 years of age: 5 ml (2.5 mg) Aerius oral solution once a day.

The safety and efficacy of Aerius 0.5 mg/ml oral solution in children below the age of 1 year have not been established. No data are available.

There is limited clinical trial efficacy experience with the use of desloratadine in children 1 through 11 years of age and adolescents 12 through 17 years of age (see sections 4.8 and 5.1).

Intermittent allergic rhinitis (presence of symptoms for less than 4 days per week or for less than 4 weeks) should be managed in accordance with the evaluation of patient’s disease history and the

treatment could be discontinued after symptoms are resolved and reinitiated upon their reappearance. In persistent allergic rhinitis (presence of symptoms for 4 days or more per week and for more than 4 weeks), continued treatment may be proposed to the patients during the allergen exposure periods.

Method of administration

Oral use.

The dose can be taken with or without food.

4.3 Contraindications

Hypersensitivity to the active substance, to any of the excipients listed in section 6.1, or to loratadine.

4.4 Special warnings and precautions for use

Desloratadine should be administered with caution in patients with medical or familial history of seizures, and mainly young children, being more susceptible to develop new seizures under desloratadine treatment. Healthcare providers may consider discontinuing desloratadine in patients who experience a seizure while on treatment.

Paediatric population

In children below 2 years of age, the diagnosis of allergic rhinitis is particularly difficult to distinguish from other forms of rhinitis. The absence of upper respiratory tract infection or structural abnormalities, as well as patient history, physical examinations, and appropriate laboratory and skin tests should be considered.

Approximately 6 % of adults and children 2- to 11-year old are phenotypic poor metabolisers of desloratadine and exhibit a higher exposure (see section 5.2). The safety of desloratadine in children 2- to 11-years of age who are poor metabolisers is the same as in children who are normal metabolisers. The effects of desloratadine in poor metabolisers < 2 years of age have not been studied.

In the case of severe renal insufficiency, Aerius should be used with caution (see section 5.2).

This medicinal product contains sorbitol; thus, patients with rare hereditary problems of fructose intolerance, glucose-galactose malabsorption or sucrase-isomaltase insufficiency should not take this medicine.

4.5 Interaction with other medicinal products and other forms of interaction

No clinically relevant interactions were observed in clinical trials with desloratadine tablets in which erythromycin or ketoconazole were co-administered (see section 5.1).

Paediatric population

Interaction studies have only been performed in adults.

In a clinical pharmacology trial, Aerius tablets taken concomitantly with alcohol did not potentiate the performance impairing effects of alcohol (see section 5.1). However, cases of alcohol intolerance and intoxication have been reported during post-marketing use. Therefore, caution is recommended if alcohol is taken concomitantly.

4.6 Fertility, pregnancy and lactation

Pregnancy

A large amount of data on pregnant women (more than 1,000 pregnancy outcomes) indicate no malformative nor foeto/ neonatal toxicity of desloratadine. Animal studies do not indicate direct or indirect harmful effects with respect to reproductive toxicity (see section 5.3). As a precautionary measure, it is preferable to avoid the use of Aerius during pregnancy.

Breast-feeding

Desloratadine has been identified in breastfed newborns/infants of treated women. The effect of desloratadine on newborns/infants is unknown. A decision must be made whether to discontinue

breast-feeding or to discontinue/abstain from Aerius therapy taking into account the benefit of breast feeding for the child and the benefit of therapy for the woman.

Fertility

There are no data available on male and female fertility.

4.7 Effects on ability to drive and use machines

Aerius has no or negligible influence on the ability to drive and use machines based on clinical trials. Patients should be informed that most people do not experience drowsiness. Nevertheless, as there is individual variation in response to all medicinal products, it is recommended that patients are advised not to engage in activities requiring mental alertness, such as driving a car or using machines, until they have established their own response to the medicinal product.

4.8 Undesirable effects

Summary of the safety profile

Paediatric population

In clinical trials in a paediatric population, the desloratadine syrup formulation was administered to a total of 246 children aged 6 months through 11 years. The overall incidence of adverse events in children 2 through 11 years of age was similar for the desloratadine and the placebo groups. In infants and toddlers aged 6 to 23 months, the most frequent adverse reactions reported in excess of placebo were diarrhoea (3.7 %), fever (2.3 %) and insomnia (2.3 %). In an additional study, no adverse events were seen in subjects between 6 and 11 years of age following a single 2.5 mg dose of desloratadine oral solution.

In a clinical trial with 578 adolescent patients, 12 through 17 years of age, the most common adverse event was headache; this occurred in 5.9 % of patients treated with desloratadine and 6.9 % of patients receiving placebo.

Adults and adolescents

At the recommended dose, in clinical trials involving adults and adolescents in a range of indications including allergic rhinitis and chronic idiopathic urticaria, undesirable effects with Aerius were reported in 3 % of patients in excess of those treated with placebo. The most frequent of adverse events reported in excess of placebo were fatigue (1.2 %), dry mouth (0.8 %) and headache (0.6 %).

Tabulated list of adverse reactions

The frequency of the clinical trial adverse reactions reported in excess of placebo and other undesirable effects reported during the post-marketing period are listed in the following table. Frequencies are defined as very common (≥ 1/10), common (≥ 1/100 to < 1/10), uncommon

(≥ 1/1,000 to < 1/100), rare (≥ 1/10,000 to < 1/1,000), very rare (< 1/10,000) and not known (cannot be estimated from the available data).

System Organ Class

Frequency

Adverse reactions seen with Aerius

Psychiatric disorders

Very rare

Hallucinations

 

Not known

Abnormal behaviour, aggression

Nervous system disorders

Common

Headache

 

Common (children less

Insomnia

 

than 2 years)

 

 

Very rare

Dizziness, somnolence, insomnia,

 

 

psychomotor hyperactivity, seizures

Cardiac disorders

Very rare

Tachycardia, palpitations

 

Not known

QT prolongation

System Organ Class

Frequency

Adverse reactions seen with Aerius

Gastrointestinal disorders

Common

Dry mouth

 

Common (children less

Diarrhoea

 

than 2 years)

 

 

Very rare

Abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting,

 

 

dyspepsia, diarrhoea

Hepatobiliary disorders

Very rare

Elevations of liver enzymes, increased

 

 

bilirubin, hepatitis

 

Not known

Jaundice

Skin and subcutaneous tissue

Not known

Photosensitivity

disorders

 

 

Musculoskeletal and

Very rare

Myalgia

connective tissue disorders

 

 

General disorders and

Common

Fatigue

administration site conditions

Common (children less

Fever

 

than 2 years)

 

 

Very rare

Hypersensitivity reactions (such as

 

 

anaphylaxis, angioedema, dyspnoea,

 

 

pruritus, rash, and urticaria)

 

Not known

Asthenia

Paediatric population

Other undesirable effects reported during the post-marketing period in paediatric patients with an unknown frequency included QT prolongation, arrhythmia, bradycardia, abnormal behaviour, and aggression.

Reporting of suspected adverse reactions

Reporting suspected adverse reactions after authorisation of the medicinal product is important. It allows continued monitoring of the benefit/risk balance of the medicinal product. Healthcare professionals are asked to report any suspected adverse reactions via the national reporting system listed in Appendix V.

4.9 Overdose

The adverse event profile associated with overdosage, as seen during post-marketing use, is similar to that seen with therapeutic doses, but the magnitude of the effects can be higher.

Treatment

In the event of overdose, consider standard measures to remove unabsorbed active substance. Symptomatic and supportive treatment is recommended.

Desloratadine is not eliminated by haemodialysis; it is not known if it is eliminated by peritoneal dialysis.

Symptoms

Based on a multiple dose clinical trial in adults and adolescents, in which up to 45 mg of desloratadine was administered (nine times the clinical dose), no clinically relevant effects were observed.

Paediatric population

The adverse event profile associated with overdosage, as seen during post-marketing use, is similar to that seen with therapeutic doses, but the magnitude of the effects can be higher.

5. PHARMACOLOGICAL PROPERTIES

5.1 Pharmacodynamic properties

Pharmacotherapeutic group: antihistamines – H1 antagonist, ATC code: R06A X27

Mechanism of action

Desloratadine is a non-sedating, long-acting histamine antagonist with selective peripheral H1- receptor antagonist activity. After oral administration, desloratadine selectively blocks peripheral histamine H1-receptors because the substance is excluded from entry to the central nervous system.

Desloratadine has demonstrated antiallergic properties from in vitro studies. These include inhibiting the release of proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-13 from human mast cells/basophils, as well as inhibition of the expression of the adhesion molecule P-selectin on endothelial cells. The clinical relevance of these observations remains to be confirmed.

Clinical efficacy and safety

Paediatric population

Efficacy of Aerius oral solution has not been investigated in separate paediatric trials. However, the safety of desloratadine syrup formulation, which contains the same concentration of desloratadine as Aerius oral solution, was demonstrated in three paediatric trials. Children, 1-11 years of age, who were candidates for antihistamine therapy received a daily desloratadine dose of 1.25 mg (1 through 5 years of age) or 2.5 mg (6 through 11 years of age). Treatment was well tolerated as documented by clinical laboratory tests, vital signs, and ECG interval data, including QTc. When given at the recommended doses, the plasma concentrations of desloratadine (see section 5.2) were comparable in the paediatric and adult populations. Thus, since the course of allergic rhinitis/chronic idiopathic urticaria and the profile of desloratadine are similar in adults and paediatric patients, desloratadine efficacy data in adults can be extrapolated to the paediatric population.

Efficacy of Aerius syrup has not been investigated in paediatric trials in children less than 12 years of age.

Adults and adolescents

In a multiple dose clinical trial, in adults and adolescents, in which up to 20 mg of desloratadine was administered daily for 14 days, no statistically or clinically relevant cardiovascular effect was observed. In a clinical pharmacology trial, in adults and adolescents, in which desloratadine was administered to adults at a dose of 45 mg daily (nine times the clinical dose) for ten days, no prolongation of QTc interval was seen.

Desloratadine does not readily penetrate the central nervous system. In controlled clinical trials, at the recommended dose of 5 mg daily for adults and adolescents, there was no excess incidence of somnolence as compared to placebo. Aerius tablets given at a single daily dose of 7.5 mg to adults and adolescents did not affect psychomotor performance in clinical trials. In a single dose study performed in adults, desloratadine 5 mg did not affect standard measures of flight performance including exacerbation of subjective sleepiness or tasks related to flying.

In clinical pharmacology trials in adults, co-administration with alcohol did not increase the alcohol- induced impairment in performance or increase in sleepiness. No significant differences were found in the psychomotor test results between desloratadine and placebo groups, whether administered alone or with alcohol.

No clinically relevant changes in desloratadine plasma concentrations were observed in multiple-dose ketoconazole and erythromycin interaction trials.

In adult and adolescent patients with allergic rhinitis, Aerius tablets were effective in relieving symptoms such as sneezing, nasal discharge and itching, as well as ocular itching, tearing and redness,

and itching of palate. Aerius effectively controlled symptoms for 24 hours. The efficacy of Aerius tablets has not been clearly demonstrated in trials with adolescent patients 12 through 17 years of age.

In addition to the established classifications of seasonal and perennial, allergic rhinitis can alternatively be classified as intermittent allergic rhinitis and persistent allergic rhinitis according to the duration of symptoms. Intermittent allergic rhinitis is defined as the presence of symptoms for less than 4 days per week or for less than 4 weeks. Persistent allergic rhinitis is defined as the presence of symptoms for 4 days or more per week and for more than 4 weeks.

Aerius tablets were effective in alleviating the burden of seasonal allergic rhinitis as shown by the total score of the rhino-conjunctivitis quality of life questionnaire. The greatest amelioration was seen in the domains of practical problems and daily activities limited by symptoms.

Chronic idiopathic urticaria was studied as a clinical model for urticarial conditions, since the underlying pathophysiology is similar, regardless of etiology, and because chronic patients can be more easily recruited prospectively. Since histamine release is a causal factor in all urticarial diseases, desloratadine is expected to be effective in providing symptomatic relief for other urticarial conditions, in addition to chronic idiopathic urticaria, as advised in clinical guidelines.

In two placebo-controlled six week trials in patients with chronic idiopathic urticaria, Aerius was effective in relieving pruritus and decreasing the size and number of hives by the end of the first dosing interval. In each trial, the effects were sustained over the 24 hour dosing interval. As with other antihistamine trials in chronic idiopathic urticaria, the minority of patients who were identified as non-responsive to antihistamines was excluded. An improvement in pruritus of more than 50 % was observed in 55 % of patients treated with desloratadine compared with 19 % of patients treated with placebo. Treatment with Aerius also significantly reduced interference with sleep and daytime function, as measured by a four-point scale used to assess these variables.

5.2 Pharmacokinetic properties

Absorption

Desloratadine plasma concentrations can be detected within 30 minutes of desloratadine administration in adults and adolescents. Desloratadine is well absorbed with maximum concentration achieved after approximately 3 hours; the terminal phase half-life is approximately 27 hours. The degree of accumulation of desloratadine was consistent with its half-life (approximately 27 hours) and a once daily dosing frequency. The bioavailability of desloratadine was dose proportional over the range of 5 mg to 20 mg.

In a series of pharmacokinetic and clinical trials, 6 % of the subjects reached a higher concentration of desloratadine. The prevalence of this poor metaboliser phenotype was comparable for adult (6 %) and paediatric subjects 2- to 11-year old (6 %), and greater among Blacks (18 % adult, 16 % paediatric) than Caucasians (2 % adult, 3 % paediatric) in both populations.

In a multiple-dose pharmacokinetic study conducted with the tablet formulation in healthy adult subjects, four subjects were found to be poor metabolisers of desloratadine. These subjects had a Cmax concentration about 3-fold higher at approximately 7 hours with a terminal phase half-life of approximately 89 hours.

Similar pharmacokinetic parameters were observed in a multiple-dose pharmacokinetic study conducted with the syrup formulation in paediatric poor metaboliser subjects 2- to 11-year old diagnosed with allergic rhinitis. The exposure (AUC) to desloratadine was about 6-fold higher and the Cmax was about 3 to 4 fold higher at 3-6 hours with a terminal half-life of approximately 120 hours. Exposure was the same in adult and paediatric poor metabolisers when treated with age-appropriate doses. The overall safety profile of these subjects was not different from that of the general population. The effects of desloratadine in poor metabolizers < 2 years of age have not been studied.

In separate single dose studies, at the recommended doses, paediatric patients had comparable AUC and Cmax values of desloratadine to those in adults who received a 5 mg dose of desloratadine syrup.

Distribution

Desloratadine is moderately bound (83 % - 87 %) to plasma proteins. There is no evidence of clinically relevant active substance accumulation following once daily adult and adolescent dosing of desloratadine (5 mg to 20 mg) for 14 days.

In a single dose, crossover study of desloratadine, the tablet and the syrup formulations were found to be bioequivalent. As Aerius oral solution contains the same concentration of desloratadine, no bioequivalence study was required and it is expected to be equivalent to the syrup and tablet.

Biotransformation

The enzyme responsible for the metabolism of desloratadine has not been identified yet, and therefore, some interactions with other medicinal products cannot be fully excluded. Desloratadine does not inhibit CYP3A4 in vivo, and in vitro studies have shown that the medicinal product does not inhibit CYP2D6 and is neither a substrate nor an inhibitor of P-glycoprotein.

Elimination

In a single dose trial using a 7.5 mg dose of desloratadine, there was no effect of food (high-fat, high caloric breakfast) on the disposition of desloratadine. In another study, grapefruit juice had no effect on the disposition of desloratadine.

Renally impaired patients

The pharmacokinetics of desloratadine in patients with chronic renal insufficiency (CRI) was compared with that of healthy subjects in one single-dose study and one multiple dose study. In the single-dose study, the exposure to desloratadine was approximately 2 and 2.5-fold greater in subjects with mild to moderate and severe CRI, respectively, than in healthy subjects. In the multiple-dose study, steady state was reached after Day 11, and compared to healthy subjects the exposure to desloratadine was ~1.5-fold greater in subjects with mild to moderate CRI and ~2.5-fold greater in subjects with severe CRI. In both studies, changes in exposure (AUC and Cmax) of desloratadine and 3-hydroxydesloratadine were not clinically relevant.

5.3 Preclinical safety data

Desloratadine is the primary active metabolite of loratadine. Non-clinical studies conducted with desloratadine and loratadine demonstrated that there are no qualitative or quantitative differences in the toxicity profile of desloratadine and loratadine at comparable levels of exposure to desloratadine.

Non-clinical data reveal no special hazard for humans based on conventional studies of safety pharmacology, repeated dose toxicity, genotoxicity, carcinogenic potential, toxicity to reproduction and development. The lack of carcinogenic potential was demonstrated in studies conducted with desloratadine and loratadine.

6. PHARMACEUTICAL PARTICULARS

6.1 List of excipients

sorbitol, propylene glycol, sucralose E 955,

hypromellose 2910, sodium citrate dihydrate,

natural and artificial flavour (bubblegum), citric acid anhydrous,

disodium edetate, purified water

6.2 Incompatibilities

Not applicable.

6.3 Shelf life

2 years

6.4 Special precautions for storage

Do not freeze. Store in the original package.

6.5 Nature and contents of container

Aerius oral solution, is supplied in 30, 50, 60, 100, 120, 150, 225 and 300 ml size Type III amber glass bottles closed with a plastic child resistant (C/R) screw closure having a multi-ply polyethylene- faced liner. All packages except the 150 ml package are supplied with a measuring spoon marked for doses of 2.5 ml and 5 ml. For the 150 ml package, a measuring spoon or an oral measuring syringe is provided, marked for doses of 2.5 ml and 5 ml.

Not all pack sizes may be marketed.

6.6 Special precautions for disposal

No special requirements.

7. MARKETING AUTHORISATION HOLDER

Merck Sharp & Dohme Ltd

Hertford Road, Hoddesdon

Hertfordshire EN11 9BU

United Kingdom

8. MARKETING AUTHORISATION NUMBERS

EU/1/00/160/061-069

9. DATE OF FIRST AUTHORISATION/RENEWAL OF THE AUTHORISATION

Date of first authorisation: 15 January 2001

Date of latest renewal: 15 January 2006

10. DATE OF REVISION OF THE TEXT

Detailed information on this medicinal product is available on the website of the European Medicines Agency http://www.ema.europa.eu.

Comments

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
  • Help
  • Get it on Google Play
  • About
  • Info on site by:

  • Presented by RXed.eu

  • 27558

    prescription drugs listed