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Bonviva (ibandronic acid) – Summary of product characteristics - M05BA06

Updated on site: 05-Oct-2017

Medication nameBonviva
ATC CodeM05BA06
Substanceibandronic acid
ManufacturerRoche Registration Ltd.

1.NAME OF THE MEDICINAL PRODUCT

Bonviva 150 mg film-coated tablets

2.QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE COMPOSITION

Each film-coated tablet contains 150 mg ibandronic acid (as sodium monohydrate).

Excipients with known effect:

Contains 154.6 mg anhydrous lactose (equivalent to 162.75 mg lactose monohydrate).

For the full list of excipients, see section 6.1.

3.PHARMACEUTICAL FORM

Film-coated tablet

White to off white film-coated tablets, of oblong shape marked “BNVA” on one side, and “150” on the other side.

4.CLINICAL PARTICULARS

4.1Therapeutic indications

Treatment of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women at increased risk of fracture (see section 5.1).

A reduction in the risk of vertebral fractures has been demonstrated, efficacy on femoral neck fractures has not been established.

4.2Posology and method of administration

Posology

The recommended dose is one 150 mg film-coated tablet once a month. The tablet should preferably be taken on the same date each month.

Bonviva should be taken after an overnight fast (at least 6 hours) and 1 hour before the first food or drink (other than water) of the day (see section 4.5) or any other oral medicinal products or supplementation (including calcium).

In case a dose is missed, patients should be instructed to take one Bonviva 150 mg tablet the morning after the tablet is remembered, unless the time to the next scheduled dose is within 7 days.

Patients should then return to taking their dose once a month on their originally scheduled date.

If the next scheduled dose is within 7 days, patients should wait until their next dose and then continue taking one tablet once a month as originally scheduled.

Patients should not take two tablets within the same week.

Patients should receive supplemental calcium and / or vitamin D if dietary intake is inadequate (see section 4.4 and section 4.5).

The optimal duration of bisphosphonate treatment for osteoporosis has not been established. The need for continued treatment should be re-evaluated periodically based on the benefits and potential risks of Bonviva on an individual patient basis, particularly after 5 or more years of use.

Special populations

Patients with renal impairment

Bonviva is not recommended for patients with a creatinine clearance below 30 ml/min due to limited clinical experience (see section 4.4 and section 5.2).

No dose adjustment is necessary for patients with mild or moderate renal impairment where creatinine clearance is equal or greater than 30 ml/min.

Patients with hepatic impairment

No dose adjustment is required (see section 5.2).

Elderly population (>65 years)

No dose adjustment is required (see section 5.2).

Paediatric population

There is no relevant use of Bonviva in children below 18 years, and Bonviva was not studied in this population. (see section 5.1 and section 5.2).

Method of administration

For oral use.

-Tablets should be swallowed whole with a glass of water (180 to 240 ml) while the patient is sitting or standing in an upright position. Water with a high concentration of calcium should not be used. If there is a concern regarding potentially high levels of calcium in the tap water (hard water), it is advised to use bottled water with a low mineral content.

-Patients should not lie down for 1 hour after taking Bonviva.

-Water is the only drink that should be taken with Bonviva.

-Patients should not chew or suck the tablet, because of a potential for oropharyngeal ulceration

4.3

Contraindications

-

Hypersensitivity to ibandronic acid or to any of the excipients listed in section 6.1

-

Hypocalcaemia

-

Abnormalities of the oesophagus which delay oesophageal emptying such as stricture or

 

achalasia

-

Inability to stand or sit upright for at least 60 minutes

4.4

Special warnings and precautions for use

Hypocalcaemia

Existing hypocalcaemia must be corrected before starting Bonviva therapy. Other disturbances of bone and mineral metabolism should also be effectively treated. Adequate intake of calcium and vitamin D is important in all patients.

Gastrointestinal irritation

Orally administered bisphosphonates may cause local irritation of the upper gastrointestinal mucosa. Because of these possible irritant effects and a potential for worsening of the underlying disease, caution should be used when Bonviva is given to patients with active upper gastrointestinal problems (e.g. known Barrett’s oesophagus, dysphagia, other oesophageal diseases, gastritis, duodenitis or ulcers).

Adverse reactions such as oesophagitis, oesophageal ulcers and oesophageal erosions, in some cases severe and requiring hospitalisation, rarely with bleeding or followed by oesophageal stricture or perforation, have been reported in patients receiving treatment with oral bisphosphonates. The risk of severe oesophageal adverse experiences appears to be greater in patients who do not comply with the dosing instruction and/or who continue to take oral bisphosphonates after developing symptoms suggestive of oesophageal irritation. Patients should pay particular attention to and be able to comply with the dosing instructions (see section 4.2).

Physicians should be alert to any signs or symptoms signaling a possible oesophageal reaction and patients should be instructed to discontinue Bonviva and seek medical attention if they develop dysphagia, odynophagia, retrosternal pain or new or worsening heartburn.

While no increased risk was observed in controlled clinical trials there have been post-marketing reports of gastric and duodenal ulcers with oral bisphosphonate use, some severe and with complications.

Since Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory medicinal products and bisphosphonates are both associated with gastrointestinal irritation, caution should be taken during concomitant administration.

Osteonecrosis of the jaw

Osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ) has been reported very rarely in the post marketing setting in patients receiving Bonviva for osteoporosis (see section 4.8).

The start of treatment or of a new course of treatment should be delayed in patients with unhealed open soft tissue lesions in the mouth.

A dental examination with preventive dentistry and an individual benefit-risk assessment is recommended prior to treatment with Bonviva in patients with concomitant risk factors.

The following risk factors should be considered when evaluating a patient’s risk of developing ONJ:

-Potency of the medicinal product that inhibit bone resorption (higher risk for highly potent compounds), route of administration (higher risk for parenteral administration) and cumulative dose of bone resorption therapy

-Cancer, co-morbid conditions (e.g. anaemia, coagulopathies, infection), smoking

-Concomitant therapies: corticosteroids, chemotherapy, angiogenesis inhibitors, radiotherapy to head and neck

-Poor oral hygiene, periodontal disease, poorly fitting dentures, history of dental disease, invasive dental procedures e.g. tooth extractions

All patients should be encouraged to maintain good oral hygiene, undergo routine dental check-ups, and immediately report any oral symptoms such as dental mobility, pain or swelling, or non-healing of sores or discharge during treatment with Bonviva. While on treatment, invasive dental procedures should be performed only after careful consideration and be avoided in close proximity to Bonviva administration.

The management plan of the patients who develop ONJ should be set up in close collaboration between the treating physician and a dentist or oral surgeon with expertise in ONJ. Temporary interruption of Bonviva treatment should be considered until the condition resolves and contributing risk factors are mitigated where possible.

Osteonecrosis of the external auditory canal

Osteonecrosis of the external auditory canal has been reported with bisphosphonates, mainly in association with long-term therapy. Possible risk factors for osteonecrosis of the external auditory canal include steroid use and chemotherapy and/or local risk factors such as infection or trauma. The possibility of osteonecrosis of the external auditory canal should be considered in patients receiving bisphosphonates who present with ear symptoms including chronic ear infections.

Atypical fractures of the femur

Atypical subtrochanteric and diaphyseal femoral fractures have been reported with bisphosphonate therapy, primarily in patients receiving long-term treatment for osteoporosis. These transverse or short oblique fractures can occur anywhere along the femur from just below the lesser trochanter to just above the supracondylar flare. These fractures occur after minimal or no trauma and some patients experience thigh or groin pain, often associated with imaging features of stress fractures, weeks to months before presenting with a completed femoral fracture. Fractures are often bilateral; therefore the contralateral femur should be examined in bisphosphonate-treated patients who have sustained a

femoral shaft fracture. Poor healing of these fractures has also been reported. Discontinuation of bisphosphonate therapy in patients suspected to have an atypical femur fracture should be considered pending evaluation of the patient, based on an individual benefit risk assessment.

During bisphosphonate treatment patients should be advised to report any thigh, hip or groin pain and any patient presenting with such symptoms should be evaluated for an incomplete femur fracture.

Renal impairment

Due to limited clinical experience, Bonviva is not recommended for patients with a creatinine clearance below 30 ml/min (see section 5.2).

Galactose intolerance

This medicinal product contains lactose. Patients with rare hereditary problems of galactose intolerance, the Lapp lactase deficiency or glucose-galactose malabsorption should not take this medicinal product.

4.5Interaction with other medicinal products and other forms of interaction

Medicinal product-Food Interaction

Oral bioavailability of ibandronic acid is generally reduced in the presence of food. In particular, products containing calcium, including milk, and other multivalent cations (such as aluminium, magnesium, iron), are likely to interfere with absorption of Bonviva, which is consistent with findings in animal studies. Therefore, patients should fast overnight (at least 6 hours) before taking Bonviva and continue fasting for 1 hour following intake of Bonviva (see section 4.2).

Interactions with other medicinal products

Metabolic interactions are not considered likely, since ibandronic acid does not inhibit the major human hepatic P450 isoenzymes and has been shown not to induce the hepatic cytochrome P450 system in rats (see section 5.2). Ibandronic acid is eliminated by renal excretion only and does not undergo any biotransformation.

Calcium supplements, antacids and some oral medicinal products containing multivalent cations Calcium supplements, antacids and some oral medicinal products containing multivalent cations (such as aluminium, magnesium, iron) are likely to interfere with the absorption of Bonviva. Therefore, patients should not take other oral medicinal products for at least 6 hours before taking Bonviva and for 1 hour following intake of Bonviva.

Acetylsalicylic acid and NSAIDs

Since Acetylsalicylic acid, Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory medicinal products (NSAIDs) and bisphosphonates are associated with gastrointestinal irritation, caution should be taken during concomitant administration (see section 4.4).

H2 blockers or proton pump inhibitors

Of over 1500 patients enrolled in study BM 16549 comparing monthly with daily dosing regimens of ibandronic acid, 14 % and 18 % of patients used histamine (H2) blockers or proton pump inhibitors after one and two years, respectively. Among these patients, the incidence of upper gastrointestinal events in the patients treated with Bonviva 150 mg once monthly was similar to that in patients treated with ibandronic acid 2.5 mg daily.

In healthy male volunteers and postmenopausal women, intravenous administration of ranitidine caused an increase in ibandronic acid bioavailability of about 20 %, probably as a result of reduced gastric acidity. However, since this increase is within the normal variability of the bioavailability of ibandronic acid, no dose adjustment is considered necessary when Bonviva is administered with H2- antagonists or other active substances which increase gastric pH.

4.6Fertility, pregnancy and lactation

Pregnancy

Bonviva is only for use in postmenopausal women and must not be taken by women of childbearing potential.

There are no adequate data from the use of ibandronic acid in pregnant women. Studies in rats have shown some reproductive toxicity (see section 5.3). The potential risk for humans is unknown. Bonviva should not be used during pregnancy.

Breast-feeding

It is not known whether ibandronic acid is excreted in human milk. Studies in lactating rats have demonstrated the presence of low levels of ibandronic acid in the milk following intravenous administration.

Bonviva should not be used during breast-feeding.

Fertility

There are no data on the effects of ibandronic acid from humans. In reproductive studies in rats by the oral route, ibandronic acid decreased fertility. In studies in rats using the intravenous route, ibandronic acid decreased fertility at high daily doses (see section 5.3).

4.7Effects on ability to drive and use machines

On the basis of the pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic profile and reported adverse reactions, it is expected that Bonviva has no or negligible influence on the ability to drive and use machines.

4.8Undesirable effects

Summary of the safety profile

The most serious reported adverse reactions are anaphylactic reaction/shock, atypical fractures of the femur, osteonecrosis of the jaw, gastrointestinal irritation, ocular inflammation, (see paragraph “Description of selected adverse reactions” and section 4.4).

The most frequently reported adverse reactions are arthralgia and influenza-like symptoms. These symptoms are typically in association with the first dose, generally of short duration, mild or moderate in intensity, and usually resolve during continuing treatment without requiring remedial measures (see paragraph “Influenza like illness”).

Tabulated list of adverse reactions

In table 1 a complete list of known adverse reactions is presented. The safety of oral treatment with ibandronic acid 2.5 mg daily was evaluated in 1251 patients treated in 4 placebo-controlled clinical studies, with the large majority of patients coming from the pivotal three year fracture study (MF4411).

In a two-year study in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis (BM 16549) the overall safety of Bonviva 150 mg once monthly and ibandronic acid 2.5 mg daily was similar. The overall proportion of patients who experienced an adverse reaction, was 22.7 % and 25.0 % for Bonviva 150 mg once monthly after one and two years, respectively. Most cases did not lead to cessation of therapy.

Adverse reactions are listed according to MedDRA system organ class and frequency category. Frequency categories are defined using the following convention: very common (>1/10), common (≥ 1/100 to < 1/10), uncommon (≥ 1/1,000 to < 1/100), rare (≥ 1/10,000 to < 1/1,000),very rare (<1/10,000), not known (cannot be estimated from the available data). Within each frequency grouping, adverse reactions are presented in order of decreasing seriousness.

Table 1: Adverse reactions occurring in postmenopausal women receiving Bonviva 150 mg once monthly or ibandronic acid 2.5 mg daily in the phase III studies BM16549 and MF4411 and in post- marketing experience.

System Organ Class

Common

Uncommon

Rare

Very rare

 

 

 

 

 

Immune system

 

Asthma

Hypersensitivity

Anaphylactic

disorders

 

exacerbation

reaction

reaction/shock*†

 

 

 

 

 

Nervous system

Headache

Dizziness

 

 

disorders

 

 

 

 

Eye disorders

 

 

Ocular

 

 

 

 

inflammation*†

 

Gastrointestinal

Oesophagitis,

Oesophagitis

Duodenitis

 

disorders*

Gastritis, Gastro

including

 

 

 

oesophageal reflux

oesophageal

 

 

 

disease, Dyspepsia,

ulcerations or

 

 

 

Diarrhoea,

strictures and

 

 

 

Abdominal pain,

dysphagia,

 

 

 

Nausea

Vomiting,

 

 

 

 

Flatulence

 

 

Skin and subcutaneous

Rash

 

Angioedema,

Stevens-Johnson

tissues disorders

 

 

Face oedema,

Syndrome†,

 

 

 

Urticaria

Erythema

 

 

 

 

Multiforme†,

 

 

 

 

Dermatitis

 

 

 

 

Bullous†

Musculoskeletal and

Arthralgia, Myalgia,

Back pain

Atypical

Osteonecrosis of

connective tissue

Musculoskeletal pain,

 

subtrochanteric

jaw*†

disorders

Muscle cramp,

 

and diaphyseal

Osteonecrosis of

 

Musculoskeletal

 

femoral fractures

the external

 

stiffness

 

 

auditory canal

 

 

 

 

(bisphosphonate

 

 

 

 

class adverse

 

 

 

 

reaction)†

General disorders and

Influenza like illness*

Fatigue

 

 

administration site

 

 

 

 

conditions

 

 

 

 

*See further information below †Identified in post-marketing experience.

Description of selected adverse reactions

Gastrointestinal adverse reactions

Patients with a previous history of gastrointestinal disease including patients with peptic ulcer without recent bleeding or hospitalisation, and patients with dyspepsia or reflux controlled by medication were included in the once monthly treatment study. For these patients, there was no difference in the incidence of upper gastrointestinal adverse events with the 150 mg once monthly regimen compared to the 2.5 mg daily regimen.

Influenza-like illness

Influenza-like illness includes events reported as acute phase reaction or symptoms including myalgia, arthralgia, fever, chills, fatigue, nausea, loss of appetite, or bone pain.

Osteonecrosis of jaw

Cases of osteonecrosis of the jaw have been reported, predominantly in cancer patients treated with medicinal products that inhibit bone resorption, such as ibandronic acid (see section 4.4.) Cases of ONJ have been reported in the post marketing setting for ibandronic acid.

Ocular inflammation

Ocular inflammation events such as uveitis, episcleritis and scleritis have been reported with ibandronic acid. In some cases, these events did not resolve until the ibandronic acid was discontinued.

Anaphylactic reaction/shock

Cases of anaphylactic reaction/shock, including fatal events, have been reported in patients treated with intravenous ibandronic acid.

Reporting of suspected adverse reactions

Reporting suspected adverse reactions after authorisation of the medicinal product is important. It allows continued monitoring of the benefit/risk balance of the medicinal product. Healthcare professionals are asked to report any suspected adverse reactions via the national reporting system listed in Appendix V.

4.9Overdose

No specific information is available on the treatment of overdose with Bonviva.

However, based on a knowledge of this class of compounds, oral overdose may result in upper gastrointestinal adverse reactions (such as upset stomach, dyspepsia, oesophagitis, gastritis, or ulcer) or hypocalcaemia. Milk or antacids should be given to bind Bonviva, and any adverse reactions treated symptomatically. Owing to the risk of oesophageal irritation, vomiting should not be induced and the patient should remain fully upright.

5.PHARMACOLOGICAL PROPERTIES

5.1Pharmacodynamic properties

Pharmacotherapeutic group: Medicinal products for treatment of bone diseases, bisphosphonates, ATC code: M05-BA06

Mechanism of action

Ibandronic acid is a highly potent bisphosphonate belonging to the nitrogen-containing group of bisphosphonates, which act selectively on bone tissue and specifically inhibit osteoclast activity without directly affecting bone formation. It does not interfere with osteoclast recruitment. Ibandronic acid leads to progressive net gains in bone mass and a decreased incidence of fractures through the reduction of elevated bone turnover towards premenopausal levels in postmenopausal women.

Pharmacodynamic effects

The pharmacodynamic action of ibandronic acid is inhibition of bone resorption. In vivo, ibandronic acid prevents experimentally induced bone destruction caused by cessation of gonadal function, retinoids, tumours or tumour extracts. In young (fast growing) rats, the endogenous bone resorption is also inhibited, leading to increased normal bone mass compared with untreated animals.

Animal models confirm that ibandronic acid is a highly potent inhibitor of osteoclastic activity. In growing rats, there was no evidence of impaired mineralization even at doses greater than 5,000 times the dose required for osteoporosis treatment.

Both daily and intermittent (with prolonged dose-free intervals) long-term administration in rats, dogs and monkeys was associated with formation of new bone of normal quality and maintained or increased mechanical strength even at doses in the toxic range. In humans, the efficacy of both daily and intermittent administration with a dose-free interval of 9-10 weeks of ibandronic acid was confirmed in a clinical trial (MF 4411), in which ibandronic acid demonstrated anti-fracture efficacy.

In animal models ibandronic acid produced biochemical changes indicative of dose-dependent inhibition of bone resorption, including suppression of urinary biochemical markers of bone collagen degradation (such as deoxypyridinoline, and cross-linked N-telopeptides of type I collagen (NTX)).

In a Phase 1 bioequivalence study conducted in 72 postmenopausal women receiving 150 mg orally every 28 days for a total of four doses, inhibition in serum CTX following the first dose was seen as early as 24 hours post-dose (median inhibition 28 %), with median maximal inhibition (69 %) seen 6 days later. Following the third and fourth dose, the median maximum inhibition 6 days post dose

was 74 % with reduction to a median inhibition of 56 % seen 28 days following the fourth dose. With no further dosing, there is a loss of suppression of biochemical markers of bone resorption.

Clinical efficacy

Independent risk factors, for example, low BMD, age, the existence of previous fractures, a family history of fractures, high bone turnover and low body mass index should be considered in order to identify women at increased risk of osteoporotic fractures.

Bonviva 150 mg once monthly

Bone mineral density (BMD)

Bonviva 150 mg once monthly was shown to be at least as effective as ibandronic acid 2.5 mg daily at increasing BMD in a two year, double-blind, multicentre study (BM 16549) of postmenopausal women with osteoporosis (lumbar spine BMD T score below -2.5 SD at baseline). This was demonstrated in both the primary analysis at one year and in the confirmatory analysis at two years endpoint (Table 2).

Table 2: Mean relative change from baseline of lumbar spine, total hip, femoral neck and trochanter BMD after one year (primary analysis) and two years of treatment (Per-Protocol Population) in study BM 16549.

 

One year data in study BM 16549

Two year data in study

 

 

 

BM 16549

 

Mean relative changes

ibandronic acid

Bonviva

ibandronic acid

Bonviva

from baseline % [95% CI]

2.5 mg daily

150 mg once

2.5 mg daily

150 mg once

 

(N=318)

monthly

(N=294)

monthly

 

 

(N=320)

 

(N=291)

 

 

 

 

 

Lumbar spine L2-L4 BMD

3.9 [3.4, 4.3]

4.9 [4.4, 5.3]

5.0 [4.4, 5.5]

6.6 [6.0, 7.1]

 

 

 

 

 

Total hip BMD

2.0 [1.7, 2.3]

3.1 [2.8, 3.4]

2.5 [2.1, 2.9]

4.2 [3.8, 4.5]

 

 

 

 

 

Femoral neck BMD

1.7 [1.3, 2.1]

2.2 [1.9, 2.6]

1.9 [1.4, 2.4]

3.1 [2.7, 3.6]

 

 

 

 

 

Trochanter BMD

3.2 [2.8, 3.7]

4.6 [4.2, 5.1]

4.0 [3.5, 4.5]

6.2 [5.7, 6.7]

 

 

 

 

 

Furthermore, Bonviva 150 mg once monthly was proven superior to ibandronic acid 2.5 mg daily for increases in lumbar spine BMD in a prospectively planned analysis at one year, p=0.002, and at two years, p<0.001.

At one year (primary analysis), 91.3 % (p=0.005) of patients receiving Bonviva 150 mg once monthly had a lumbar spine BMD increase above or equal to baseline (BMD responders), compared with

84.0 % of patients receiving ibandronic acid 2.5 mg daily. At two years, 93.5 % (p=0.004) and 86.4 % of patients receiving Bonviva 150 mg once monthly or ibandronic acid 2.5 mg daily, respectively, were responders.

For total hip BMD, 90.0 % (p<0.001) of patients receiving Bonviva 150 mg once monthly and 76.7 % of patients receiving ibandronic acid 2.5 mg daily had total hip BMD increases above or equal to baseline at one year. At two years 93.4 % (p<0.001) of patients receiving Bonviva 150 mg once

monthly and 78.4 %, of patients receiving ibandronic acid 2.5 mg daily had total hip BMD increases above or equal to baseline.

When a more stringent criterion is considered, which combines both lumbar spine and total hip BMD, 83.9 % (p<0.001) and 65.7 % of patients receiving Bonviva 150 mg once monthly or ibandronic acid 2.5 mg daily, respectively, were responders at one year. At two years, 87.1 % (p<0.001) and 70.5 %,of patients met this criterion in the 150 mg monthly and 2.5 mg daily arms respectively.

Biochemical markers of bone turn-over

Clinically meaningful reductions in serum CTX levels were observed at all time points measured, i.e. months 3, 6, 12 and 24. After one year (primary analysis) the median relative change from baseline was -76 % for Bonviva 150 mg once monthly and -67 % for ibandronic acid 2.5 mg daily. At two years the median relative change was -68 % and -62 %, in the 150 mg monthly and 2.5 mg daily arms respectively.

At one year, 83.5 % (p= 0.006) of patients receiving Bonviva 150 mg once monthly and 73.9 % of patients receiving ibandronic acid 2.5 mg daily were identified as responders (defined as a decrease ≥50 % from baseline). At two years 78.7 % (p=0.002) and 65.6 % of patients were identified as responders in the 150 mg monthly and 2.5 mg daily arms respectively.

Based on the results of study BM 16549, Bonviva 150 mg once monthly is expected to be at least as effective in preventing fractures as ibandronic acid 2.5 mg daily.

Ibandronic acid 2.5 mg daily

In the initial three-year, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, fracture study (MF 4411), a statistically significant and medically relevant decrease in the incidence of new radiographic morphometric and clinical vertebral fractures was demonstrated (table 3). In this study, ibandronic acid was evaluated at oral doses of 2.5 mg daily and 20 mg intermittently as an exploratory regimen. Ibandronic acid was taken 60 minutes before the first food or drink of the day (post-dose fasting period). The study enrolled women aged 55 to 80 years, who were at least 5 years postmenopausal, who had a BMD at lumbar spine of 2 to 5 SD below the premenopausal mean (T-score) in at least one vertebra [L1-L4], and who had one to four prevalent vertebral fractures. All patients received 500 mg calcium and 400 IU vitamin D daily. Efficacy was evaluated in 2,928 patients. ibandronic acid 2.5 mg administered daily, showed a statistically significant and medically relevant reduction in the incidence of new vertebral fractures. This regimen reduced the occurrence of new radiographic vertebral fractures by 62 % (p=0.0001) over the three year duration of the study. A relative risk reduction of

61 % was observed after 2 years (p=0.0006). No statistically significant difference was attained after 1 year of treatment (p=0.056). The anti-fracture effect was consistent over the duration of the study. There was no indication of a waning of the effect over time.

The incidence of clinical vertebral fractures was also significantly reduced by 49 % (p=0.011). The strong effect on vertebral fractures was furthermore reflected by a statistically significant reduction of height loss compared to placebo (p<0.0001).

Table 3: Results from 3 years fracture study MF 4411 (%, 95 % CI)

 

Placebo

ibandronic acid 2.5 mg daily

 

(N=974)

(N=977)

Relative Risk Reduction

 

62 % (40.9, 75.1)

New morphometric vertebral

 

 

fractures

 

 

Incidence of new morphometric

9.56 % (7.5, 11.7)

4.68 % (3.2,6.2)

vertebral fractures

 

 

Relative risk reduction of clinical

 

49 %

vertebral fracture

 

(14.03, 69.49)

Incidence of clinical vertebral

5.33 %

2.75 %

fracture

(3.73, 6.92)

(1.61, 3.89)

BMD – mean change relative to

1.26 % (0.8, 1.7)

6.54 % (6.1, 7.0)

baseline lumbar spine at year 3

 

 

BMD – mean change relative to

-0.69 %

3.36 %

baseline total hip at year 3

(-1.0, -0.4)

(3.0, 3.7)

The treatment effect of ibandronic acid was further assessed in an analysis of the subpopulation of patients who at baseline had a lumbar spine BMD T-score below –2.5. The vertebral fracture risk reduction was very consistent with that seen in the overall population.

Table 4: Results from 3 years fracture study MF 4411 (%, 95 % CI) for patients with lumbar spine BMD T-score below –2.5 at baseline

 

Placebo

ibandronic acid 2.5 mg daily

 

(N=587)

(N=575)

Relative Risk Reduction

 

59 % (34.5, 74.3)

New morphometric vertebral

 

 

fractures

 

 

Incidence of new morphometric

12.54 % (9.53, 15.55)

5.36 % (3.31, 7.41)

vertebral fractures

 

 

Relative risk reduction of clinical

 

50 % (9.49, 71.91)

vertebral fracture

 

 

Incidence of clinical vertebral

6.97 % (4.67, 9.27)

3.57 % (1.89, 5.24)

fracture

 

 

BMD – mean change relative to

1.13 % (0.6, 1.7)

7.01 % (6.5, 7.6)

baseline lumbar spine at year 3

 

 

BMD – mean change relative to

-0.70 % (-1.1, -0.2)

3.59 % (3.1, 4.1)

baseline total hip at year 3

 

 

In the overall patient population of the study MF4411, no reduction was observed for non-vertebral fractures, however daily ibandronic acid appeared to be effective in a high-risk subpopulation (femoral neck BMD T-score < -3.0), where a non-vertebral fracture risk reduction of 69% was observed.

Daily treatment with 2.5 mg resulted in progressive increases in BMD at vertebral and nonvertebral sites of the skeleton.

Three-year lumbar spine BMD increase compared to placebo was 5.3 % and 6.5 % compared to baseline. Increases at the hip compared to baseline were 2.8 % at the femoral neck, 3.4 % at the total hip, and 5.5 % at the trochanter.

Biochemical markers of bone turnover (such as urinary CTX and serum Osteocalcin) showed the expected pattern of suppression to premenopausal levels and reached maximum suppression within a period of 3-6 months.

A clinically meaningful reduction of 50 % of biochemical markers of bone resorption was observed as early as one month after start of treatment with ibandronic acid 2.5 mg.

Following treatment discontinuation, there is a reversion to the pathological pre-treatment rates of elevated bone resorption associated with postmenopausal osteoporosis.

The histological analysis of bone biopsies after two and three years of treatment of postmenopausal women showed bone of normal quality and no indication of a mineralization defect.

Paediatric population (see section 4.2 and section 5.2)

Bonviva was not studied in the paediatric population, therefore no efficacy or safety data are available for this patient population.

5.2Pharmacokinetic properties

The primary pharmacological effects of ibandronic acid on bone are not directly related to actual plasma concentrations, as demonstrated by various studies in animals and humans.

Absorption

The absorption of ibandronic acid in the upper gastrointestinal tract is rapid after oral administration and plasma concentrations increase in a dose-proportional manner up to 50 mg oral intake, with greater than dose-proportional increases seen above this dose. Maximum observed plasma concentrations were reached within 0.5 to 2 hours (median 1 hour) in the fasted state and absolute bioavailability was about 0.6 %. The extent of absorption is impaired when taken together with food or beverages (other than water). Bioavailability is reduced by about 90 % when ibandronic acid is administered with a standard breakfast in comparison with bioavailability seen in fasted subjects. There is no meaningful reduction in bioavailability provided ibandronic acid is taken 60 minutes before the first food of the day. Both bioavailability and BMD gains are reduced when food or beverage is taken less than 60 minutes after ibandronic acid is ingested.

Distribution

After initial systemic exposure, ibandronic acid rapidly binds to bone or is excreted into urine. In humans, the apparent terminal volume of distribution is at least 90 l and the amount of dose reaching the bone is estimated to be 40-50 % of the circulating dose. Protein binding in human plasma is approximately 85 % - 87 % (determined in vitro at therapeutic concentrations), and thus there is a low potential for interaction with other medicinal products due to displacement.

Biotransformation

There is no evidence that ibandronic acid is metabolised in animals or humans.

Elimination

The absorbed fraction of ibandronic acid is removed from the circulation via bone absorption (estimated to be 40-50 % in postmenopausal women) and the remainder is eliminated unchanged by the kidney. The unabsorbed fraction of ibandronic acid is eliminated unchanged in the faeces.

The range of observed apparent half-lives is broad, the apparent terminal half-life is generally in the range of 10-72 hours. As the values calculated are largely a function of the duration of study, the dose used, and assay sensitivity, the true terminal half-life is likely to be substantially longer, in common with other bisphosphonates. Early plasma levels fall quickly reaching 10 % of peak values within 3 and 8 hours after intravenous or oral administration respectively.

Total clearance of ibandronic acid is low with average values in the range 84-160 ml/min. Renal clearance (about 60 mL/min in healthy postmenopausal females) accounts for 50-60 % of total clearance and is related to creatinine clearance. The difference between the apparent total and renal clearances is considered to reflect the uptake by bone.

The secretory pathway appears not to include known acidic or basic transport systems involved in the excretion of other active substances. In addition, ibandronic acid does not inhibit the major human hepatic P450 isoenzymes and does not induce the hepatic cytochrome P450 system in rats.

Pharmacokinetics in special clinical situations

Gender

Bioavailability and pharmacokinetics of ibandronic acid are similar in men and women.

Race

There is no evidence for any clinically relevant inter-ethnic differences between Asians and Caucasians in ibandronic acid disposition. There are few data available on patients of African origin.

Patients with renal impairment

Renal clearance of ibandronic acid in patients with various degrees of renal impairment is linearly related to creatinine clearance.

No dose adjustment is necessary for patients with mild or moderate renal impairment (CLcr equal or greater than 30 ml/min), as shown in study BM 16549 where the majority of patients had mild to moderate renal impairment.

Subjects with severe renal failure (CLcr less than 30 ml/min) receiving daily oral administration of 10 mg ibandronic acid for 21 days, had 2-3 fold higher plasma concentrations than subjects with normal renal function and total clearance of ibandronic acid was 44 ml/min. After intravenous administration of 0.5 mg, total, renal, and non-renal clearances decreased by 67 %, 77 % and 50 %, respectively, in subjects with severe renal failure but there was no reduction in tolerability associated with the increase in exposure. Due to the limited clinical experience, Bonviva is not recommended in patients with severe renal impairment (see section 4.2 and section 4.4). The pharmacokinetics of ibandronic acid was not assessed in patients with end-stage renal disease managed by other than hemodialysis. The pharmacokinetics of ibandronic acid in these patients is unknown, and ibandronic acid should not be used under these circumstances.

Patients with hepatic impairment (see section 4.2)

There are no pharmacokinetic data for ibandronic acid in patients who have hepatic impairment. The liver has no significant role in the clearance of ibandronic acid which is not metabolised but is cleared by renal excretion and by uptake into bone. Therefore dose adjustment is not necessary in patients with hepatic impairment.

Elderly population (see section 4.2)

In a multivariate analysis, age was not found to be an independent factor of any of the pharmacokinetic parameters studied. As renal function decreases with age this is the only factor to take into consideration (see renal impairment section).

Paediatric population (see section 4.2 and section 5.1)

There are no data on the use of Bonviva in these age groups.

5.3Preclinical safety data

Toxic effects, e.g signs of renal damage, were observed in dogs only at exposures considered sufficiently in excess of the maximum human exposure indicating little relevance to clinical use.

Mutagenicity/Carcinogenicity:

No indication of carcinogenic potential was observed. Tests for genotoxicity revealed no evidence of genetic activity for ibandronic acid.

Reproductive toxicity:

There was no evidence for a direct foetal toxic or teratogenic effect of ibandronic acid in orally treated rats and rabbits and there were no adverse effects on the development in F1 offspring in rats at an extrapolated exposure of at least 35 times above human exposure. In reproductive studies in rats by the oral route effects on fertility consisted of increased preimplantation losses at dose levels of 1 mg/kg/day and higher. In reproductive studies in rats by the intravenous route, ibandronic acid decreased sperm counts at doses of 0.3 and 1 mg/kg/day and decreased fertility in males at 1 mg/kg/day and in females at 1.2 mg/kg/day. Adverse effects of ibandronic acid in reproductive

toxicity studies in the rat were those observed with bisphosphonates as a class. They include a decreased number of implantation sites, interference with natural delivery (dystocia), and an increase in visceral variations (renal pelvis ureter syndrome).

6.PHARMACEUTICAL PARTICULARS

6.1List of excipients

Tablet core

Lactose monohydrate

Povidone

Cellulose, microcrystalline

Crospovidone

Stearic acid

Silica, colloidal anhydrous

Tablet coat

Hypromellose

Titanium dioxide (E 171)

Talc

Macrogol 6,000

6.2Incompatibilities

Not applicable.

6.3Shelf life

5 years.

6.4Special precautions for storage

This medicinal product does not require any special storage conditions.

6.5Nature and contents of container

Bonviva 150 mg film-coated tablets are supplied in blisters (PVC/PVDC, sealed with aluminium foil) containing 1 or 3 tablets.

Not all pack sizes may be marketed.

6.6Special precautions for disposal

Any unused medicinal product or waste material should be disposed of in accordance with local requirements. The release of pharmaceuticals in the environment should be minimized.

7.MARKETING AUTHORISATION HOLDER

Roche Registration Limited

6 Falcon Way

Shire Park

Welwyn Garden City

AL7 1TW

United Kingdom

8.MARKETING AUTHORISATION NUMBER(S)

EU/1/03/265/003

EU/1/03/265/004

9.DATE OF FIRST AUTHORISATION/RENEWAL OF THE AUTHORISATION

Date of first authorisation: 23 February 2004

Date of latest renewal: 18 December 2013

10.DATE OF REVISION OF THE TEXT

Detailed information on this medicinal product is available on the website of the European Medicines Agency http://www.ema.europa.eu.

1. NAME OF THE MEDICINAL PRODUCT

Bonviva 3 mg solution for injection

2. QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE COMPOSITION

One pre-filled syringe of 3 ml solution contains 3 mg ibandronic acid (as sodium monohydrate). The concentration of ibandronic acid in the solution for injection is 1mg per ml.

For the full list of excipients, see section 6.1.

3. PHARMACEUTICAL FORM

Solution for injection.

Clear, colourless solution.

4. CLINICAL PARTICULARS

4.1 Therapeutic indications

Treatment of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women at increased risk of fracture (see section 5.1).

A reduction in the risk of vertebral fractures has been demonstrated, efficacy on femoral neck fractures has not been established.

4.2 Posology and method of administration

Patients treated with Bonviva should be given the package leaflet and the patient reminder card.

Posology

The recommended dose of ibandronic acid is 3 mg, administered as an intravenous injection over 15 - 30 seconds, every three months.

Patients must receive supplemental calcium and vitamin D (see section 4.4 and section 4.5),

If a dose is missed, the injection should be administered as soon as convenient. Thereafter, injections should be scheduled every 3 months from the date of the last injection.

The optimal duration of bisphosphonate treatment for osteoporosis has not been established. The need for continued treatment should be re-evaluated periodically based on the benefits and potential risks of Bonviva on an individual patient basis, particularly after 5 or more years of use.

Special populations

Patients with renal impairment

Bonviva injection is not recommended for use in patients who have a serum creatinine above

200 µmol/l (2.3 mg/dl) or who have a creatinine clearance (measured or estimated) below 30 ml/min, because of limited clinical data available from studies including such patients (see section 4.4 and section 5.2).

No dose adjustment is necessary for patients with mild or moderate renal impairment where serum creatinine is equal or below 200 µmol/l (2.3 mg/dl) or where creatinine clearance (measured or estimated) is equal or greater than 30 ml/min.

Patients with hepatic impairment

No dose adjustment is required (see section 5.2).

Elderly population (>65 years)

No dose adjustment is required (see section 5.2).

Paediatric population

There is no relevant use of Bonviva in children below 18 years, and Bonviva was not studied in this population (see section 5.1 and 5.2).

Method of administration

For intravenous use over 15 - 30 seconds, every three months.

Strict adherence to the intravenous administration route is required (see section 4.4).

4.3

Contraindications

-

Hypersensitivity to ibandronic acid or to any of the excipients listed in section 6.1

-

Hypocalcaemia

4.4

Special warnings and precautions for use

Administration failures

Care must be taken not to administer Bonviva injection via intra-arterial or paravenous administration as this could lead to tissue damage.

Hypocalcaemia

Bonviva, like other bisphosphonates administered intravenously, may cause a transient decrease in serum calcium values.

Existing hypocalcaemia must be corrected before starting Bonviva injection therapy. Other disturbances of bone and mineral metabolism should also be effectively treated before starting Bonviva injection therapy.

All patients must receive adequate supplemental calcium and vitamin D.

Anaphylactic reaction/shock

Cases of anaphylactic reaction/shock, including fatal events, have been reported in patients treated with intravenous ibandronic acid.

Appropriate medical support and monitoring measures should be readily available when Bonviva intravenous injection is administered. If anaphylactic or other severe hypersensitivity/allergic reactions occur, immediately discontinue the injection and initiate appropriate treatment.

Renal impairment

Patients with concomitant diseases, or who use medicinal products which have potential for undesirable effects on the kidney, should be reviewed regularly in line with good medical practice during treatment.

Due to limited clinical experience, Bonviva injection is not recommended for patients with a serum creatinine above 200 µmol/l (2.3 mg/dl) or with a creatinine clearance below 30 ml/min (see section 4.2 and section 5.2).

Patients with cardiac impairment

Overhydration should be avoided in patients at risk of cardiac failure.

Osteonecrosis of the jaw

Osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ) has been reported very rarely in the post marketing setting in patients receiving Bonviva for osteoporosis (see section 4.8).

The start of treatment or of a new course of treatment should be delayed in patients with unhealed open soft tissue lesions in the mouth.

A dental examination with preventive dentistry and an individual benefit-risk assessment is recommended prior to treatment with Bonviva in patients with concomitant risk factors.

The following risk factors should be considered when evaluating a patient’s risk of developing ONJ:

-Potency of the medicinal product that inhibit bone resorption (higher risk for highly potent compounds), route of administration (higher risk for parenteral administration) and cumulative dose of bone resorption therapy

-Cancer, co-morbid conditions (e.g. anaemia, coagulopathies, infection), smoking

-Concomitant therapies: corticosteroids, chemotherapy, angiogenesis inhibitors, radiotherapy to head and neck

-Poor oral hygiene, periodontal disease, poorly fitting dentures, history of dental disease, invasive dental procedures e.g. tooth extractions

All patients should be encouraged to maintain good oral hygiene, undergo routine dental check-ups, and immediately report any oral symptoms such as dental mobility, pain or swelling, or non-healing of sores or discharge during treatment with Bonviva. While on treatment, invasive dental procedures should be performed only after careful consideration and be avoided in close proximity to Bonviva administration.

The management plan of the patients who develop ONJ should be set up in close collaboration between the treating physician and a dentist or oral surgeon with expertise in ONJ. Temporary interruption of Bonviva treatment should be considered until the condition resolves and contributing risk factors are mitigated where possible.

Osteonecrosis of the external auditory canal

Osteonecrosis of the external auditory canal has been reported with bisphosphonates, mainly in association with long-term therapy. Possible risk factors for osteonecrosis of the external auditory canal include steroid use and chemotherapy and/or local risk factors such as infection or trauma. The possibility of osteonecrosis of the external auditory canal should be considered in patients receiving bisphosphonates who present with ear symptoms including chronic ear infections.

Atypical fractures of the femur

Atypical subtrochanteric and diaphyseal femoral fractures have been reported with bisphosphonate therapy, primarily in patients receiving long-term treatment for osteoporosis. These transverse or short oblique fractures can occur anywhere along the femur from just below the lesser trochanter to just above the supracondylar flare. These fractures occur after minimal or no trauma and some patients experience thigh or groin pain, often associated with imaging features of stress fractures, weeks to months before presenting with a completed femoral fracture. Fractures are often bilateral; therefore the contralateral femur should be examined in bisphosphonate-treated patients who have sustained a femoral shaft fracture. Poor healing of these fractures has also been reported. Discontinuation of bisphosphonate therapy in patients suspected to have an atypical femur fracture should be considered pending evaluation of the patient, based on an individual benefit risk assessment.

During bisphosphonate treatment patients should be advised to report any thigh, hip or groin pain and any patient presenting with such symptoms should be evaluated for an incomplete femur fracture.

Bonviva is essentially sodium free.

4.5 Interaction with other medicinal products and other forms of interaction

Metabolic interactions are not considered likely, since ibandronic acid does not inhibit the major human hepatic P450 isoenzymes and has been shown not to induce the hepatic cytochrome P450 system in rats (see section 5.2). Ibandronic acid is eliminated by renal excretion only and does not undergo any biotransformation.

4.6 Fertility, pregnancy and lactation

Pregnancy

Bonviva is only for use in postmenopausal women and must not be taken by women of child bearing potential.

There are no adequate data from the use of ibandronic acid in pregnant women. Studies in rats have shown some reproductive toxicity (see section 5.3). The potential risk for humans is unknown. Bonviva should not be used during pregnancy.

Breast-feeding

It is not known whether ibandronic acid is excreted in human milk. Studies in lactating rats have demonstrated the presence of low levels of ibandronic acid in the milk following intravenous administration. Bonviva should not be used during breastfeeding.

Fertility

There are no data on the effects of ibandronic acid from humans. In reproductive studies in rats by the oral route, ibandronic acid decreased fertility. In studies in rats using the intravenous route, ibandronic acid decreased fertility at high daily doses (see section 5.3).

4.7 Effects on ability to drive and use machines

On the basis of the pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic profile and reported adverse reactions, it is expected that Bonviva has no or negligible influence on the ability to drive and use machines.

4.8 Undesirable effects

Summary of the safety profile

The most serious reported adverse reactions are anaphylactic reaction/shock, atypical fractures of the femur, osteonecrosis for the jaw and ocular inflammation (see paragraph “Description of selected adverse reactions” and section 4.4).

The most frequently reported adverse reactions are arthralgia and influenza-like symptoms. These symptoms are typically in association with the first dose, generally of short duration, mild or moderate in intensity, and usually resolve during continuing treatment without requiring remedial measures (please see paragraph “Influenza like illness”).

Tabulated list of adverse reactions

In table 1 a complete list of known adverse reactions is presented.

The safety of oral treatment with ibandronic acid 2.5 mg daily was evaluated in 1251 patients treated in 4 placebo-controlled clinical studies, with the large majority of patients coming from the pivotal three-year fracture study (MF 4411).

In the pivotal two-year study in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis (BM16550), the overall safety of intravenous injection of Bonviva 3 mg every 3 months and oral ibandronic acid 2.5 mg daily were shown to be similar. The overall proportion of patients who experienced an adverse reaction was 26.0 % and 28.6 % for Bonviva 3 mg injection every 3 months after one year and two years, respectively. Most cases of adverse reactions did not lead to cessation of therapy.

Adverse reactions are listed according to MedDRA system organ class and frequency category. Frequency categories are defined using the following convention: very common (>1/10), common (≥ 1/100 to < 1/10), uncommon (≥ 1/1,000 to < 1/100), rare (≥ 1/10,000 to < 1/1,000), very rare (<1/10,000), not known (cannot be estimated from the available data). Within each frequency grouping, adverse reactions are presented in order of decreasing seriousness.

Table 1: Adverse reactions occurring in postmenopausal women receiving Bonviva 3 mg injection every 3 months or ibandronic acid 2.5 mg daily in the phase III studies BM16550 and MF 4411, and in post-marketing experience.

System Organ

Common

Uncommon

Rare

Very rare

Class

 

 

 

 

Immune system

 

Asthma

Hypersensitivity

Anaphylactic

disorders

 

exacerbation

reaction

reaction/shock*

 

 

 

 

 

Nervous system

Headache

 

 

 

disorders

 

 

 

 

Eye disorders

 

 

Ocular

 

 

 

 

inflammation*

 

Vascular

 

Phlebitis/

 

 

disorders

 

thrombophlebitis

 

 

Gastrointestinal

Gastritis, Dyspepsia,

 

 

 

disorders

Diarrhoea,

 

 

 

 

Abdominal pain,

 

 

 

 

Nausea, Constipation

 

 

 

Skin and

Rash

 

Angioedema,

Stevens-Johnson

subcutaneous

 

 

Facial

Syndrome†,

tissues disorders

 

 

swelling/oedema,

Erythema

 

 

 

Urticaria

Multiforme†,

 

 

 

 

Dermatitis

 

 

 

 

Bullous†

Musculoskeletal

Arthralgia, Myalgia,

Bone pain

Atypical

Osteonecrosis of

and , connective

Musculoskeletal

 

subtrochanteric

jaw*

tissue disorders

pain, Back pain

 

and diaphyseal

Osteonecrosis of

 

 

 

femoral

the external

 

 

 

fractures

auditory canal

 

 

 

 

(bisphosphonate

 

 

 

 

class adverse

 

 

 

 

reaction)†

General

Influenza like

Injection site

 

 

disorders and

illness*, Fatigue

reactions, Asthenia

 

 

administration

 

 

 

 

site conditions

 

 

 

 

*See further information below †Identified in post-marketing experience.

Description of selected adverse reactions

Influenza-like illness

Influenza-like illness includes events reported as acute phase reaction or symptoms, including myalgia, arthralgia, fever, chills, fatigue, nausea, loss of appetite, and bone pain.

Osteonecrosis of the jaw

Cases of osteonecrosis of the jaw have been reported, predominantly in cancer patients treated with medicinal products that inhibit bone resorption, such as ibandronic acid (see section 4.4.) Cases of ONJ have been reported in the post marketing setting for ibandronic acid.

Ocular inflammation

Ocular inflammation events such as uveitis, episcleritis and scleritis have been reported with ibandronic acid. In some cases, these events did not resolve until the ibandronic acid was discontinued.

Anaphylactic reaction/shock

Cases of anaphylactic reaction/shock, including fatal events, have been reported in patients treated with intravenous ibandronic acid.

Reporting of suspected adverse reactions

Reporting suspected adverse reactions after authorisation of the medicinal product is important. It allows continued monitoring of the benefit/risk balance of the medicinal product. Healthcare professionals are asked to report any suspected adverse reactions via the national reporting system listed in Appendix V.

4.9 Overdose

No specific information is available on the treatment of overdosage with Bonviva.

Based on knowledge of this class of compounds, intravenous overdosage may result in hypocalcaemia, hypophosphataemia, and hypomagnesaemia. Clinically relevant reductions in serum levels of calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium should be corrected by intravenous administration of calcium gluconate, potassium or sodium phosphate, and magnesium sulfate, respectively.

5. PHARMACOLOGICAL PROPERTIES

5.1 Pharmacodynamic properties

Pharmacotherapeutic group: Medicinal products for treatment of bone diseases, bisphosphonates, ATC code: M05BA06

Mechanism of action

Ibandronic acid is a highly potent bisphosphonate belonging to the nitrogen-containing group of bisphosphonates, which act selectively on bone tissue and specifically inhibit osteoclast activity without directly affecting bone formation. It does not interfere with osteoclast recruitment. Ibandronic acid leads to progressive net gains in bone mass and a decreased incidence of fractures through the reduction of elevated bone turnover towards premenopausal levels in postmenopausal women.

Pharmacodynamic effects

The pharmacodynamic action of ibandronic acid is inhibition of bone resorption. In vivo, ibandronic acid prevents bone destruction experimentally induced by cessation of gonadal function, retinoids, tumours or tumour extracts. In young (fast growing) rats, the endogenous bone resorption is also inhibited, leading to increased normal bone mass compared with untreated animals.

Animal models confirm that ibandronic acid is a highly potent inhibitor of osteoclastic activity. In growing rats, there was no evidence of impaired mineralisation even at doses greater than 5,000 times the dose required for osteoporosis treatment.

Both daily and intermittent (with prolonged dose-free intervals) long-term administration in rats, dogs and monkeys was associated with formation of new bone of normal quality and maintained or increased mechanical strength even at doses in the toxic range. In humans, the efficacy of both daily and intermittent administration with a dose-free interval of 9 - 10 weeks of ibandronic acid was confirmed in a clinical trial (MF 4411), in which ibandronic acid demonstrated anti-fracture efficacy.

In animal models ibandronic acid produced biochemical changes indicative of dose-dependent inhibition of bone resorption, including suppression of urinary biochemical markers of bone collagen degradation (such as deoxypyridinoline, and cross-linked N-telopeptides of type I collagen (NTX)).

Both daily, intermittent (with a dose-free interval of 9 - 10 weeks per quarter) oral doses as well as intravenous doses of ibandronic acid in postmenopausal women produced biochemical changes indicative of dose-dependent inhibition of bone resorption.

Bonviva intravenous injection decreased levels of serum C-telopeptide of the alpha chain of Type I collagen (CTX) within 3 - 7 days of starting treatment and decreased levels of osteocalcin within 3 months.

Following treatment discontinuation, there is a reversion to the pathological pre-treatment rates of elevated bone resorption associated with postmenopausal osteoporosis.

The histological analysis of bone biopsies after two and three years of treatment of postmenopausal women with doses of oral ibandronic acid 2.5 mg daily and intermittent intravenous doses of up to

1 mg every 3 months showed bone of normal quality and no indication of a mineralisation defect. An expected decrease in bone turnover, normal quality of bone and absence of defects in mineralization were also seen after two years of treatment with Bonviva 3 mg injection.

Clinical efficacy

Independent risk factors, for example, low BMD, age, the existence of previous fractures, a family history of fractures, high bone turnover and low body mass index should be considered in order to identify women at increased risk of osteoporotic fractures.

Bonviva 3 mg injection every 3 months

Bone mineral density (BMD)

Bonviva 3 mg intravenous injection, administered every 3 months, was shown to be at least as effective as oral ibandronic acid 2.5 mg daily in a 2-year, randomised, double-blind, multicentre, non- inferiority study (BM16550) of postmenopausal women (1386 women aged 55 - 80) with osteoporosis (lumbar spine BMD T-score below -2.5 SD at baseline). This was demonstrated in both the primary analysis at one year and in the confirmatory analysis at two years endpoint (Table 2).

The primary analysis of data from study BM16550 at one year and the confirmatory analysis at 2 years demonstrated the non-inferiority of 3 mg every 3 months injection dosing regimen compared to 2.5 mg oral daily dosing regimen, in terms of mean increases in BMD at lumbar spine, total hip, femoral neck and trochanter (Table 2).

Table 2: Mean relative change from baseline of lumbar spine, total hip, femoral neck and trochanter BMD after one year (primary analysis) and two years of treatment (Per-Protocol Population) in study BM 16550.

 

One year data in study BM 16550

Two year data in study

 

 

 

BM 16550

Mean relative changes

ibandronic acid

Bonviva 3 mg

ibandronic

Bonviva 3 mg

from baseline % [95% CI]

2.5 mg daily

injection every

acid 2.5 mg

injection every

 

(N=377)

3 months

daily

3 months

 

(N=365)

(N=334)

 

(N=334)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Lumbar spine L2-L4 BMD

3.8 [3.4, 4.2]

4.8 [4.5, 5.2]

4.8 [4.3, 5.4]

6.3 [5.7, 6.8]

 

 

 

 

 

Total hip BMD

1.8 [1.5, 2.1]

2.4 [2.0, 2.7]

2.2 [1.8, 2.6]

3.1 [2.6, 3.6]

 

 

 

 

 

Femoral neck BMD

1.6 [1.2, 2.0]

2.3 [1.9, 2.7]

2.2 [1.8, 2.7]

2.8 [2.3, 3.3]

 

 

 

 

 

Trochanter BMD

3.0 [2.6, 3.4]

3.8 [3.2, 4.4]

3.5 [3.0, 4.0]

4.9 [4.1, 5.7]

 

 

 

 

 

Furthermore, Bonviva 3 mg injection every 3 months was proven superior to oral ibandronic acid 2.5 mg daily for increases in lumbar spine BMD in a prospectively planned analysis at one year, p<0.001, and at two years, p<0.001.

For lumbar spine BMD, 92.1 % of patients receiving 3 mg injection every 3 months increased or maintained their BMD after 1 year of treatment (i.e. were responders) compared with 84.9 % of patients receiving oral 2.5 mg daily (p=0.002). After 2 years of treatment, 92.8 % of patients receiving 3 mg injections and 84.7 % of patient receiving 2.5 mg oral therapy had increased or maintained lumbar spine BMD (p=0.001).

For total hip BMD, 82.3 % of patients receiving 3 mg injection every 3 months were responders at one year, compared with 75.1 % of patients receiving 2.5 mg daily orally (p=0.02). After 2 years of treatment, 85.6 % of patients receiving 3 mg injections and 77.0 % of patient receiving 2.5 mg oral therapy had increased or maintained total hip BMD (p=0.004).

The proportion of patients who increased or maintained their BMD at one year at both lumbar spine and total hip was 76.2 % in the 3 mg injection every 3 months arm and 67.2 % in the 2.5 mg daily orally arm (p=0.007). At two years, 80.1 % and 68.8 % of patients met this criterion in the 3 mg every 3 months injection arm and the 2.5 mg daily arm (p=0.001).

Biochemical markers of bone turn-over

Clinically meaningful reductions in serum CTX levels were observed at all time points measured. At 12 months median relative changes from baseline were –58.6 % for the intravenous injection of 3 mg every 3 months regimen and –62.6 % for oral 2.5 mg daily regimen. In addition, 64.8 % of patients receiving 3 mg every 3 months injection were identified as responders (defined as a decrease ≥50 % from baseline), compared with 64.9 % of patients receiving 2.5 mg daily orally. Serum CTX reduction was maintained over the 2 years, with more than half of the patients identified as responders in both treatment groups.

Based on the results of study BM 16550, Bonviva 3 mg intravenous injection, administered every 3 months is expected to be at least as effective in preventing fractures as the oral regimen of ibandronic acid 2.5 mg daily.

Ibandronic acid 2.5 mg daily tablets

In the initial three-year, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, fracture study (MF 4411), a statistically significant and medically relevant decrease in the incidence of new radiographic morphometric and clinical vertebral fractures was demonstrated (table 3). In this study, ibandronic acid was evaluated at oral doses of 2.5 mg daily and 20 mg intermittently as an exploratory regimen. Ibandronic acid was taken 60 minutes before the first food or drink of the day (post-dose fasting period). The study enrolled women aged 55 to 80 years, who were at least 5 years postmenopausal, who had a BMD at the lumbar spine of -2 to -5 SD below the premenopausal mean (T-score) in at least one vertebra [L1-L4], and who had one to four prevalent vertebral fractures. All patients received 500 mg calcium and 400 IU vitamin D daily. Efficacy was evaluated in 2,928 patients. Ibandronic acid 2.5 mg administered daily, showed a statistically significant and medically relevant reduction in the incidence of new vertebral fractures. This regimen reduced the occurrence of new radiographic vertebral fractures by 62 % (p=0.0001) over the three year duration of the study. A relative risk reduction of 61 % was observed after 2 years (p=0.0006). No statistically significant difference was attained after 1 year of treatment (p=0.056). The anti-fracture effect was consistent over the duration of the study. There was no indication of a waning of the effect over time.

The incidence of clinical vertebral fractures was also significantly reduced by 49 % after 3 years (p=0.011). The strong effect on vertebral fractures was furthermore reflected by a statistically significant reduction of height loss compared to placebo (p<0.0001).

Table 3: Results from 3 years fracture study MF 4411 (%, 95 % CI)

 

Placebo

ibandronic acid 2.5 mg daily

 

(N=974)

(N=977)

Relative risk reduction

 

62% (40.9, 75.1)

New morphometric vertebral

 

 

fractures

 

 

Incidence of new morphometric

9.56% (7.5, 11.7)

4.68% (3.2, 6.2)

vertebral fractures

 

 

Relative risk reduction of clinical

 

49%

vertebral fracture

 

(14.03, 69.49)

Incidence of clinical vertebral

5.33% (3.73, 6.92)

2.75%

fracture

 

(1.61, 3.89)

BMD – mean change relative to

1.26% (0.8, 1.7)

6.54% (6.1, 7.0)

baseline lumbar spine at year 3

 

 

BMD – mean change relative to

-0.69%

3.36%

baseline total hip at year 3

(-1.0, -0.4)

(3.0, 3.7)

The treatment effect of ibandronic acid was further assessed in an analysis of the subpopulation of patients who, at baseline, had a lumbar spine BMD T-score below –2.5 (table 4). The vertebral fracture risk reduction was very consistent with that seen in the overall population.

Table 4: Results from 3 years fracture study MF 4411 (%, 95 % CI) for patients with lumbar spine BMD T-score below –2.5 at baseline

 

Placebo

ibandronic acid 2.5 mg daily

 

(N=587)

(N=575)

Relative Risk Reduction

 

59% (34.5, 74.3)

New morphometric vertebral

 

 

fractures

 

 

Incidence of new morphometric

12.54% (9.53, 15.55)

5.36% (3.31, 7.41)

vertebral fractures

 

 

Relative risk reduction of clinical

 

50% (9.49, 71.91)

vertebral fracture

 

 

Incidence of clinical vertebral

6.97% (4.67, 9.27)

3.57% (1.89, 5.24)

fracture

 

 

BMD – mean change relative to

1.13% (0.6, 1.7)

7.01% (6.5, 7.6)

baseline lumbar spine at year 3

 

 

BMD – mean change relative to

-0.70% (-1.1, -0.2)

3.59% (3.1, 4.1)

baseline total hip at year 3

 

 

In the overall patient population of the study MF4411, no reduction was observed for non-vertebral fractures, however daily ibandronic acid appeared to be effective in a high-risk subpopulation (femoral neck BMD T-score < -3.0), where a non-vertebral fracture risk reduction of 69% was observed.

Daily oral treatment with ibandronic acid 2.5 mg tablets resulted in progressive increases in BMD at vertebral and nonvertebral sites of the skeleton.

Three-year lumbar spine BMD increase compared to placebo was 5.3 % and 6.5 % compared to baseline. Increases at the hip compared to baseline were 2.8 % at the femoral neck, 3.4 % at the total hip, and 5.5 % at the trochanter.

Biochemical markers of bone turnover (such as urinary CTX and serum Osteocalcin) showed the expected pattern of suppression to premenopausal levels and reached maximum suppression within a period of 3 - 6 months of using 2.5 mg ibandronic acid daily.

A clinically meaningful reduction of 50 % of biochemical markers of bone resorption was observed as early as one month after starting treatment with ibandronic acid 2.5 mg.

Paediatric population (see section 4.2 and section 5.2).

Bonviva was not studied in the paediatric population, therefore no efficacy or safety data are available for this patient population.

5.2 Pharmacokinetic properties

The primary pharmacological effects of ibandronic acid on bone are not directly related to actual plasma concentrations, as demonstrated by various studies in animals and humans.

Plasma concentrations of ibandronic acid increase in a dose-proportional manner after intravenous administration of 0.5 mg to 6 mg.

Absorption

Not applicable

Distribution

After initial systemic exposure, ibandronic acid rapidly binds to bone or is excreted into urine. In humans, the apparent terminal volume of distribution is at least 90 l and the amount of dose reaching the bone is estimated to be 40 – 50 % of the circulating dose. Protein binding in human plasma is approximately 85 % - 87 % (determined in vitro at therapeutic ibandronic acid concentrations), and thus there is a low potential for interaction with other medicinal products due to displacement.

Biotransformation

There is no evidence that ibandronic acid is metabolised in animals or humans.

Elimination

Ibandronic acid is removed from the circulation via bone absorption (estimated to be 40 – 50 % in postmenopausal women) and the remainder is eliminated unchanged by the kidney.

The range of observed apparent half-lives is broad, the apparent terminal half-life is generally in the range of 10 - 72 hours. As the values calculated are largely a function of the duration of study, the dose used, and assay sensitivity, the true terminal half-life is likely to be substantially longer, in common with other bisphosphonates. Early plasma levels fall quickly, reaching 10 % of the peak values within 3 and 8 hours after intravenous or oral administration, respectively.

Total clearance of ibandronic acid is low with average values in the range 84 - 160 ml/min. Renal clearance (about 60 ml/min in healthy postmenopausal females) accounts for 50 – 60 % of total clearance, and is related to creatinine clearance. The difference between the apparent total and renal clearances is considered to reflect the uptake by bone.

The secretory pathway appears not to include known acidic or basic transport systems involved in the excretion of other active substances.(see section 4.5). In addition, ibandronic acid does not inhibit the major human hepatic P450 isoenzymes and does not induce the hepatic cytochrome P450 system in rats.

Pharmacokinetics in special clinical situations

Gender

Pharmacokinetics of ibandronic acid are similar in men and women.

Race

There is no evidence for any clinically relevant inter-ethnic differences between Asians and Caucasians in ibandronic acid disposition. There is limited data available on patients of African origin.

Patients with renal impairment

Renal clearance of ibandronic acid in patients with various degrees of renal impairment is linearly related to creatinine clearance (CLcr).

No dose adjustment is necessary for patients with mild or moderate renal impairment (CLcr equal or above 30 ml/min).

Subjects with severe renal impairment (CLcr less than 30 ml/min) receiving daily oral administration of 10 mg ibandronic acid for 21 days, had 2 - 3 fold higher plasma concentrations than subjects with normal renal function and total clearance of ibandronic acid was 44 ml/min. After intravenous administration of 0.5 mg of ibandronic acid, total, renal, and non-renal clearances decreased by 67 %, 77 % and 50 %, respectively, in subjects with severe renal failure, but there was no reduction in tolerability associated with the increase in exposure. Due to the limited clinical experience, Bonviva is not recommended in patients with severe renal impairment (see section 4.2 and section 4.4). The pharmacokinetics of ibandronic acid in patients with end-stage renal disease was only assessed in a small number of patients managed by haemodialysis, therefore, the pharmacokinetics of ibandronic acid in the patients not undergoing haemodialysis is unknown. Due to the limited data available, ibandronic acid should not be used in all patients with end-stage renal disease.

Patients with hepatic impairment (see section 4.2)

There are no pharmacokinetic data for ibandronic acid in patients who have hepatic impairment. The liver has no significant role in the clearance of ibandronic acid, which is not metabolised but is cleared by renal excretion and by uptake into bone. Therefore dose adjustment is not necessary in patients with hepatic impairment.

Elderly population (see section 4.2)

In a multivariate analysis, age was not found to be an independent factor of any of the pharmacokinetic parameters studied. As renal function decreases with age, renal function is the only factor to take into consideration (see renal impairment section).

Paediatric population (see section 4.2 and section 5.1)

There are no data on the use of Bonviva in these age groups.

5.3 Preclinical safety data

Toxic effects, e.g. signs of renal damage, were observed in dogs only at exposures considered sufficiently in excess of the maximum human exposure, indicating little relevance to clinical use.

Mutagenicity/Carcinogenicity:

No indication of carcinogenic potential was observed. Tests for genotoxicity revealed no evidence of genetic activity for ibandronic acid.

Reproductive toxicity:

Specific studies for the 3-monthly dosing regimen have not been performed. In studies with daily i.v. dosing regimen, there was no evidence for a direct foetal toxic or teratogenic effect of ibandronic acid in rats and rabbits. Body weight gain was decreased in F1 offspring in rats. In reproductive studies in rats by the oral route effects on fertility consisted of increased preimplantation losses at dose levels of 1 mg/kg/day and higher. In reproductive studies in rats by the intravenous route, ibandronic acid decreased sperm counts at doses of 0.3 and 1 mg/kg/day and decreased fertility in males at 1 mg/kg/day and in females at 1.2 mg/kg/day. Other adverse reactions to ibandronic acid in reproductive toxicity studies in the rat were those observed with bisphosphonates as a class. They include a decreased number of implantation sites, interference with natural delivery (dystocia), and an increase in visceral variations (renal pelvis ureter syndrome).

6. PHARMACEUTICAL PARTICULARS

6.1 List of excipients

Sodium chloride

Glacial acetic acid

Sodium acetate trihydrate

Water for injections

6.2 Incompatibilities

Bonviva solution for injection must not be mixed with calcium-containing solutions or other intravenously administered medicinal products.

6.3 Shelf life

2 years.

6.4 Special precautions for storage

This medicinal product does not require any special storage conditions.

6.5 Nature and contents of container

Pre-filled syringes (5 ml) made of colourless type I glass, the grey rubber plunger stopper and tip cap are made of fluororesin-laminated butyl rubber, containing 3 ml of solution for injection.

Packs of 1 pre-filled syringe and 1 injection needle or 4 pre-filled syringes and 4 injection needles.

Not all pack sizes may be marketed.

6.6 Special precautions for disposal

Where the medicinal product is administered into an existing intravenous infusion line, the infusate should be restricted to either isotonic saline or 50 mg/ml (5 %) glucose solution. This also applies to solutions used to flush butterfly and other devices.

Any unused solution for injection, syringe and injection needle should be disposed of in accordance with local requirements. The release of pharmaceuticals in the environment should be minimized.

The following points should be strictly adhered to regarding the use and disposal of syringes and other medicinal sharps:

Needles and syringes should never be reused.

Place all used needles and syringes into a sharps container (puncture-proof disposable container).

Keep this container out of the reach of children.

Placing used sharps containers in the household waste should be avoided.

Dispose of the full container according to local requirements or as instructed by your healthcare professional.

7. MARKETING AUTHORISATION HOLDER

Roche Registration Limited

6 Falcon Way

Shire Park

Welwyn Garden City

AL7 1TW

United Kingdom

8. MARKETING AUTHORISATION NUMBER(S)

EU/1/03/265/005

EU/1/03/265/006

9. DATE OF FIRST AUTHORISATION/RENEWAL OF THE AUTHORISATION

Date of first authorisation: 23 February 2004

Date of latest renewal: 18 December 2013

10. DATE OF REVISION OF THE TEXT

Detailed information on this medicinal product is available on the website of the European Medicines Agency http://www.ema.europa.eu.

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