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Clopidogrel BMS (clopidogrel hydrogen sulphate) – Summary of product characteristics - B01AC04

Updated on site: 06-Oct-2017

Medication nameClopidogrel BMS
ATC CodeB01AC04
Substanceclopidogrel hydrogen sulphate
ManufacturerBristol-Myers Squibb Pharma EEIG
Film-coated tablet.
For a full list of excipients, see section 6.1.

1.NAME OF THE MEDICINAL PRODUCT

Clopidogrel BMS 75 mg film-coated tablets

2.QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE COMPOSITION

Each film-coated tablet contains 75 mg of clopidogrel (as hydrogen sulphate).

Excipients: each tablet contains 3 mg lactose and 3.3 mg hydrogenated castor oil.

3.PHARMACEUTICAL FORM

Pink, round, biconvex, engraved with «75» on one side and «1171» on the otherauthorisedside.

4.CLINICAL PARTICULARS

4.1Therapeutic indications

 

 

 

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Clopidogrel is indicated in adults for the prevention of atherothrombotic events in:

Patients suffering from myocardial infarction (from a few days until less than 35 days),

 

 

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ischaemic stroke (from 7 days until less than 6 months) or established peripheral arterial disease.

Patients suffering from acute coronary syndrome:

 

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- Non-ST segment elevation acute coronary syndrome (unstable angina or non-Q-wave

 

myocardial infarction), including patients undergoing a stent placement following

 

percutaneous coronary intervention, in combination with acetylsalicylic acid (ASA).

 

- ST segment elevation acute myocardial infarction, in combination with ASA in medically

 

treated patients eligible for thrombolytic therapy.

 

For further information please refer to section 5.1.

 

MedicinalIn patients suffering from acute coronary syndrome:

4.2 Posology and method of administration

 

Adults and elderly

 

 

 

Clopidogrel should be given as a single daily dose of 75 mg with or without food.

Non-ST segment elevation acute coronary syndrome (unstable angina or non-Q-wave myocardial infarction): clopidogrel treatment should be initiated with a single 300-mg loading dose and then continued at 75 mg once a day (with acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) 75 mg-325 mg daily). Since higher doses of ASA were associated with higher bleeding risk it is recommended that the dose of ASA should not be higher than 100 mg. The optimal duration of treatment has not been formally established. Clinical trial data support use up to 12 months, and the maximum benefit was seen at 3 months (see section 5.1).

-ST segment elevation acute myocardial infarction: clopidogrel should be given as a single daily dose of 75 mg initiated with a 300-mg loading dose in combination with ASA and with or without thrombolytics. For patients over 75 years of age clopidogrel should be initiated without a loading dose. Combined therapy should be started as early

as possible after symptoms start and continued for at least four weeks. The benefit of the combination of clopidogrel with ASA beyond four weeks has not been studied in this setting (see section 5.1).

Pharmacogenetics

 

 

 

CYP2C19 poor metaboliser status is associated with diminished response to clopidogrel. The

 

optimal dose regimen for poor metabolisers has yet to be determined (see section 5.2).

Paediatric patients

 

 

 

The safety and efficacy of clopidogrel in children and adolescents have not yet been established.

Renal impairment

 

 

 

Therapeutic experience is limited in patients with renal impairment (see section 4.4).

Hepatic impairment

 

 

 

Therapeutic experience is limited in patients with moderate hepatic disease who may have

 

bleeding diatheses (see section 4.4).

 

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4.3

Contraindications

 

Hypersensitivity to the active substance or to any of the excipients.

Severe liver impairment.

 

Active pathological bleeding such as peptic ulcer or intracranial haemorrhage.

4.4

Special warnings and precautions for use

 

Due to the risk of bleeding and haematological undesirable effects, blood cell count determination

 

 

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and/or other appropriate testing should be promptly consideredlongerwhenever clinical symptoms suggestive

of bleeding arise during the course of treatment (see section 4.8). As with other antiplatelet agents,

clopidogrel should be used with caution in patients who may be at risk of increased bleeding from

 

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trauma, surgery or other pathological conditions and in patients receiving treatment with ASA, heparin,

glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) including Cox-2

inhibitors. Patients should be followed carefully for any signs of bleeding including occult bleeding,

especially during the first weeks of treatment and/or after invasive cardiac procedures or surgery. The concomitant administration of clopidogrel with oral anticoagulants is not recommended since it may increase the intensity of bleedings (see section 4.5).

If a patient is to undergo elective surgery and antiplatelet effect is temporarily not desirable, Medicinalclopidogrel should be discontinued 7 days prior to surgery. Patients should inform physicians and

dentists that they are taking clopidogrel before any surgery is scheduled and before any new medicinal product is taken. Clopidogrel prolongs bleeding time and should be used with caution in patients who have lesions with a propensity to bleed (particularly gastrointestinal and intraocular).

Patients should be told that it might take longer than usual to stop bleeding when they take clopidogrel (alone or in combination with ASA), and that they should report any unusual bleeding (site or duration) to their physician.

Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura (TTP) has been reported very rarely following the use of clopidogrel, sometimes after a short exposure. It is characterised by thrombocytopenia and microangiopathic haemolytic anaemia associated with either neurological findings, renal dysfunction or fever. TTP is a potentially fatal condition requiring prompt treatment including plasmapheresis.

In view of the lack of data, clopidogrel cannot be recommended during the first 7 days after acute ischaemic stroke.

Pharmacogenetics: Based on literature data, patients with genetically reduced CYP2C19 function have lower systemic exposure to the active metabolite of clopidogrel and diminished antiplatelet responses, and generally exhibit higher cardiovascular event rates following myocardial infarction than do patients with normal CYP2C19 function (see section 5.2).

Since clopidogrel is metabolised to its active metabolite partly by CYP2C19, use of drugs that inhibit the activity of this enzyme would be expected to result in reduced drug levels of the active metabolite of clopidogrel and a reduction in clinical efficacy. Concomitant use of drugs that inhibit CYP2C19 should be discouraged (see section 4.5 for a list of CYP2C19 inhibitors, see also section 5.2). Although the evidence of CYP2C19 inhibition varies within the class of Proton Pump Inhibitors, clinical studies suggest an interaction between clopidogrel and possibly all members of this class. Therefore, concomitant use of Proton Pump Inhibitors should be avoided unless absolutely necessary. There is no evidence that other drugs that reduce stomach acid such as H2 blockers or antacids interfere with antiplatelet activity of clopidogrel.

Therapeutic experience with clopidogrel is limited in patients with renal impairment. Therefore clopidogrel should be used with caution in these patients (see section 4.2).

Experience is limited in patients with moderate hepatic disease who may have bleeding diatheses.

Clopidogrel should therefore be used with caution in this population (see section 4.2).

 

 

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Clopidogrel BMS contains lactose. Patients with rare hereditary problems of galactose intolerance, the

Lapp lactase deficiency or glucose-galactose malabsorption should not take this medicinal product.

This medicinal product contains hydrogenated castor oil which may cause stomach upset and

diarrhoea.

 

 

4.5 Interaction with other medicinal products and other forms of interaction

 

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Oral anticoagulants: the concomitant administration of clopidogrel with oral anticoagulants is not

recommended since it may increase the intensity of bleedings (see section 4.4).

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Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors: clopidogrel should be used with caution in patients who may be at risk of increased bleeding from trauma, surgery or other pathological conditions that receive concomitant glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors (see section 4.4).

Acetylsalicylic acid (ASA): ASA did not modify the clopidogrel-mediated inhibition of ADP-induced platelet aggregation, but clopidogrel potentiated the effect of ASA on collagen-induced platelet

aggregation. However, concomitant administration of 500 mg of ASA twice a day for one day did not Medicinalsignificantly increase the prolongation of bleeding time induced by clopidogrel intake. A

pharmacodynamic interaction between clopidogrel and acetylsalicylic acid is possible, leading to increased risk of bleeding. Therefore, concomitant use should be undertaken with caution (see section 4.4). However, clopidogrel and ASA have been administered together for up to one year (see section 5.1).

Heparin: in a clinical study conducted in healthy subjects, clopidogrel did not necessitate modification of the heparin dose or alter the effect of heparin on coagulation. Co-administration of heparin had no effect on the inhibition of platelet aggregation induced by clopidogrel. A pharmacodynamic interaction between clopidogrel and heparin is possible, leading to increased risk of bleeding. Therefore, concomitant use should be undertaken with caution (see section 4.4).

Thrombolytics: the safety of the concomitant administration of clopidogrel, fibrin or non-fibrin specific thrombolytic agents and heparins was assessed in patients with acute myocardial infarction. The incidence of clinically significant bleeding was similar to that observed when thrombolytic agents and heparin are co-administered with ASA (see section 4.8)

NSAIDs: in a clinical study conducted in healthy volunteers, the concomitant administration of clopidogrel and naproxen increased occult gastrointestinal blood loss. However, due to the lack of interaction studies with other NSAIDs it is presently unclear whether there is an increased risk of gastrointestinal bleeding with all NSAIDs. Consequently, NSAIDs including Cox-2 inhibitors and clopidogrel should be co-administered with caution (see section 4.4).

Other concomitant therapy:

Since clopidogrel is metabolised to its active metabolite partly by CYP2C19, use of drugs that inhibit

the activity of this enzyme would be expected to result in reduced drug levels of the active metabolite

of clopidogrel and a reduction in clinical efficacy. Concomitant use of drugs that inhibit CYP2C19

should be discouraged (see sections 4.4 and 5.2).

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Drugs that inhibit CYP2C19 include omeprazole and esomeprazole, fluvoxamine, fluoxetine, moclobemide, voriconazole, fluconazole, ticlopidine, ciprofloxacin, cimetidine, carbamazepine, oxcarbazepine and chloramphenicol.

Proton Pump Inhibitors:

Although the evidence of CYP2C19 inhibition varies within the class of Proton Pump Inhibitors, clinical studies suggest an interaction between clopidogrel and possibly all members of this class.

Therefore, concomitant use of Proton Pump Inhibitors should be avoided unless absolutely necessary.

There is no evidence that other drugs that reduce stomach acid such as H2 blockers or antacids

interfere with antiplatelet activity of clopidogrel.

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A number of other clinical studies have been conducted with clopidogrel and other concomitant medicinal products to investigate the potential for pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic interactions. No clinically significant pharmacodynamic interactions were observed when clopidogrel was co-administered with atenolol, nifedipine, or both atenolol and nifedipine. Furthermore, the

 

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pharmacodynamic activity of clopidogrel was not significantly influenced by the co-administration of

phenobarbital, cimetidine, or oestrogen.

 

The pharmacokinetics of digoxin or theophylline were not modified by the co-administration of

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clopidogrel. Antacids did not modify the extent of clopidogrel absorption.

Data from studies with human liver microsomes indicated that the carboxylic acid metabolite of clopidogrel could inhibit the activity of Cytochrome P450 2C9. This could potentially lead to increased

plasma levels of medicinal products such as phenytoin and tolbutamide and the NSAIDs, which are metabolised by Cytochrome P450 2C9. Data from the CAPRIE study indicate that phenytoin and

tolbutamide can be safely co-administered with clopidogrel.

MedicinalApart from the specific medicinal product interaction information described above, interaction studies with clopidogrel and some medicinal products commonly administered in patients with

atherothrombotic disease have not been performed. However, patients entered into clinical trials with clopidogrel received a variety of concomitant medicinal products including diuretics, beta blockers, ACEI, calcium antagonists, cholesterol lowering agents, coronary vasodilators, antidiabetic agents (including insulin), antiepileptic agents, and GPIIb/IIIa antagonists without evidence of clinically significant adverse interactions.

4.6 Pregnancy and lactation

As no clinical data on exposure to clopidogrel during pregnancy are available, it is preferable not to use clopidogrel during pregnancy as a precautionary measure.

Animal studies do not indicate direct or indirect harmful effects with respect to pregnancy, embryonal/foetal development, parturition or postnatal development (see section 5.3).

It is unknown whether clopidogrel is excreted in human breast milk. Animal studies have shown excretion of clopidogrel in breast milk. As a precautionary measure, breast-feeding should not be continued during treatment with Clopidogrel BMS.

4.7Effects on ability to drive and use machines

Clopidogrel has no or negligible influence on the ability to drive and use machines.

4.8Undesirable effects

In CAPRIE, in patients treated with either clopidogrel or ASA, the overall incidenceauthorisedof any bleeding was 9.3%. The incidence of severe cases was 1.4% for clopidogrel and 1.6% for ASA.

Clopidogrel has been evaluated for safety in more than 42,000 patients who have participated in clinical studies, including over 9,000 patients treated for 1 year or more. The clinically relevant adverse reactions observed in the CAPRIE, CURE, CLARITY and COMMIT studies are discussed

below. Overall, clopidogrel 75 mg/day was comparable to ASA 325 mg/day in CAPRIE regardless of age, gender and race. In addition to clinical studies experience, adverse reactions have been spontaneously reported.

Bleeding is the most common reaction reported both in clinical studies as well as in post-marketing experience where it was mostly reported during the first month of treatment.

In CURE, the major bleeding event rate for clopidogrel+ASA was dose-dependent on ASA (<100mg: 2.6%; 100-200mg: 3.5%; >200mg: 4.9%) as was the major bleeding event rate for placebo+ASA (<100mg: 2.0%; 100-200mg: 2.3%; >200mg: 4.0%). The risk of bleeding (life-threatening, major, minor, other) decreased during the course of the trial: 0-1 months (clopidogrel: 9.6%; placebo: 6.6%),

1-3 months (clopidogrel: 4.5%; placebo: 2.3%),

3-6 months (clopidogrel: 3.8%; placebo: 1.6%),

6-9 months (clopidogrel: 3.2%; placebo: 1.5%),

 

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9-12 months (clopidogrel: 1.9%; placebo: 1.0%).

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There was no excess in major bleeds with clopidogrel + ASA within 7 days after coronary bypass graft surgery in patients who productstopped therapy more than five days prior to surgery (4.4% clopidogrel+ASA

vs. 5.3% placebo+ASA). In patients who remained on therapy within five days of bypass graft surgery, the event rate was 9.6% for clopidogrel+ASA, and 6.3% for placebo+ASA.

In CLARITY, there was an overall increase in bleeding in the clopidogrel + ASA group (17.4%) vs. the placebo + ASA group (12.9%).The incidence of major bleeding was similar between groups (1.3% versus 1.1% for the clopidogrel + ASA and the placebo + ASA groups, respectively). This was

consistent across subgroups of patients defined by baseline characteristics, and type of fibrinolytic or

Medicinalheparin therapy.

In COMMIT, the overall rate of noncerebral major bleeding or cerebral bleeding was low and similar in both groups (0.6% versus 0.5% in the clopidogrel + ASA and the placebo + ASA groups, respectively).

Adverse reactions that occurred either during clinical studies or that were spontaneously reported are presented in the table below. Their frequency is defined using the following conventions: common (≥1/100 to <1/10); uncommon (≥1/1,000 to <1/100); rare (≥1/10,000 to <1/1,000); very rare (<1/10,000). Within each system organ class, adverse drug reactions are presented in order of decreasing seriousness.

System Organ

Common

Uncommon

Rare

Very rare

Class

 

 

 

 

Blood and the

 

Thrombocytopenia,

Neutropenia,

Thrombotic

lymphatic system

 

leucopenia,

including

thrombocytopenic

disorders

 

eosinophilia

severe

purpura (TTP) (see

 

 

 

neutropenia

section 4.4), aplastic

 

 

 

 

anaemia, pancytopenia,

 

 

 

 

agranulocytosis, severe

 

 

 

 

thrombocytopenia,

Immune system disorders

Psychiatric disorders

Nervous system disorders

Eye disorders

Ear and labyrinth disorders

Vascular disorders

Respiratory, thoracic and mediastinal

disorders MedicinalGastrointestinal disorders

Hepato-biliary disorders

 

 

 

 

 

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granulocytopenia,

 

 

 

 

 

 

anaemia

 

 

 

 

 

 

Serum sickness,

 

 

 

 

 

 

anaphylactoid

 

 

 

 

 

 

reactions

 

 

 

 

 

 

Hallucinations,

 

 

 

 

 

 

confusion

 

Intracranial

 

 

 

Taste disturbances

 

bleeding (some

 

 

 

 

 

cases were

 

 

 

 

 

reported with fatal

 

 

 

 

outcome),

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headache,

 

 

 

 

 

paraesthesia,

 

 

 

 

 

dizziness

 

 

 

 

 

Eye bleeding

 

 

 

 

 

(conjunctival,

 

 

 

 

 

ocular, retinal)

 

 

 

 

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Vertigo

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Serious haemorrhage,

Haematoma

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

haemorrhage of

 

 

 

 

 

 

operative wound,

 

 

 

 

 

 

vasculitis, hypotension

Epistaxis

 

 

 

 

 

Respiratory tract

 

 

 

 

 

 

bleeding (haemoptysis,

 

 

 

 

 

 

pulmonary

 

 

 

 

 

 

haemorrhage),

 

 

 

 

 

 

bronchospasm,

 

 

 

 

 

 

interstitial pneumonitis

Gastrointestinal

Gastric ulcer and

Retroperitoneal

Gastrointestinal and

haemorrhage,

duodenal ulcer,

 

haemorrhage

 

retroperitoneal

diarrhoea,

gastritis, vomiting,

 

 

haemorrhage with fatal

abdominal

nausea,

 

 

 

outcome, pancreatitis,

pain, dyspepsia

constipation,

 

 

 

colitis (including

 

flatulence

 

 

 

ulcerative or

 

 

 

 

 

 

lymphocytic colitis),

 

 

 

 

 

 

stomatitis

 

 

 

 

 

 

Acute liver failure,

 

 

 

 

 

 

hepatitis, abnormal

 

 

 

 

 

 

liver function test

System Organ

Common

Uncommon

Rare

Very rare

 

Class

 

 

 

 

 

 

Skin and

Bruising

Rash, pruritus, skin

 

Bullous dermatitis

 

subcutaneous tissue

 

bleeding (purpura)

 

(toxic epidermal

 

disorders

 

 

 

 

necrolysis, Stevens

 

 

 

 

 

 

Johnson Syndrome,

 

 

 

 

 

 

erythema multiforme),

 

 

 

 

 

 

angioedema, rash

 

 

 

 

 

 

erythematous,

 

 

 

 

 

 

urticaria, eczema,

 

 

 

 

 

 

lichen planus

 

Musculoskeletal,

 

 

 

 

Musculo-skeletal

 

connective tissue

 

 

 

 

bleeding

 

and bone disorders

 

 

 

 

(haemarthrosis),

 

 

 

 

 

 

arthritis, arthralgia,

 

 

 

 

 

 

myalgia

 

Renal and urinary

 

Haematuria

 

 

Glomerulonephritis,

 

disorders

 

 

 

 

blood creatinine

 

 

 

 

 

 

increased

 

General disorders

Bleeding at

 

 

 

Fever

 

and administration

puncture site

 

 

 

authorised

 

site conditions

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Investigations

 

Bleeding time

 

 

 

 

 

 

prolonged,

 

 

 

 

 

 

neutrophil count

 

 

 

 

 

decreased, platelet

 

 

 

 

 

count decreased

 

 

 

 

 

 

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4.9 Overdose

 

 

 

 

 

 

Overdose following clopidogrel administrationnomay lead to prolonged bleeding time and subsequent bleeding complications. Appropriate therapy should be considered if bleedings are observed.

No antidote to the pharmacologicalproductactivity of clopidogrel has been found. If prompt correction of prolonged bleeding time is required, platelet transfusion may reverse the effects of clopidogrel.

5. PHARMACOLOGICAL PROPERTIES

Medicinal5.1 Pharmacodynamic properties

Pharmacotherapeutic group: platelet aggregation inhibitors excl. heparin, ATC Code: B01AC-04.

Clopidogrel is a prodrug, one of whose metabolites is an inhibitor of platelet aggregation. Clopidogrel must be metabolised by CYP450 enzymes to produce the active metabolite that inhibits platelet aggregation. The active metabolite of clopidogrel selectively inhibits the binding of adenosine diphosphate (ADP) to its platelet P2Y12 receptor and the subsequent ADP-mediated activation of the glycoprotein GPIIb/IIIa complex, thereby inhibiting platelet aggregation. Due to the irreversible binding, platelets exposed are affected for the remainder of their lifespan (approximately 7-10 days) and recovery of normal platelet function occurs at a rate consistent with platelet turnover. Platelet aggregation induced by agonists other than ADP is also inhibited by blocking the amplification of platelet activation by released ADP.

Because the active metabolite is formed by CYP450 enzymes, some of which are polymorphic or subject to inhibition by other drugs, not all patients will have adequate platelet inhibition.

Repeated doses of 75 mg per day produced substantial inhibition of ADP-induced platelet aggregation from the first day; this increased progressively and reached steady state between Day 3 and Day 7. At

steady state, the average inhibition level observed with a dose of 75 mg per day was between 40% and 60%. Platelet aggregation and bleeding time gradually returned to baseline values, generally within

5 days after treatment was discontinued.

The safety and efficacy of clopidogrel have been evaluated in 4 double-blind studies involving over 80,000 patients: the CAPRIE study, a comparison of clopidogrel to ASA, and the CURE, CLARITY and COMMIT studies comparing clopidogrel to placebo, both medicinal products given in combination with ASA and other standard therapy.

treat analysis, 939 events were observed in the clopidogrel group and 1,020authorisedevents with ASA (relative risk reduction (RRR) 8.7%, [95% CI: 0.2 to 16.4]; p = 0.045), which corresponds, for every

Recent myocardial infarction (MI), recent stroke or established peripheral arterial disease

The CAPRIE study included 19,185 patients with atherothrombosis as manifested by recent myocardial infarction (<35 days), recent ischaemic stroke (between 7 days and 6 months) or established peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Patients were randomised to clopidogrel 75 mg/day or

ASA 325 mg/day, and were followed for 1 to 3 years. In the myocardial infarction subgroup, most of the patients received ASA for the first few days following the acute myocardial infarction.

Clopidogrel significantly reduced the incidence of new ischaemic events (combined end point of

myocardial infarction, ischaemic stroke and vascular death) when compared to ASA. In the intention to

to PAD (especially those who also had a history of myocardiallongerinfarction) (RRR = 23.7%; CI: 8.9 to 36.2) and weaker (not significantly different from ASA) in stroke patients (RRR = 7.3%; CI: -5.7 to

1,000 patients treated for 2 years, to 10 [CI: 0 to 20] additional patients being prevented from

experiencing a new ischaemic event. Analysis of total mortality as a secondary endpoint did not show any significant difference between clopidogrel (5.8%) and ASA (6.0%).

In a subgroup analysis by qualifying condition (myocardial infarction, ischaemic stroke, and PAD) the

benefit appeared to be strongest (achieving statistical significance at p = 0.003) in patients enrolled due

Since the CAPRIE trial was not powered to evaluate efficacy of individual subgroups, it is not clear whether the differences in relative risk reduction across qualifying conditions are real, or a result of chance.

18.7 [p=0.258]). In patients who were enrolled in the trial on the sole basis of a recent myocardial

infarction, clopidogrel was numerically inferior, but not statistically different from ASA (RRR =

 

no

-4.0%; CI: -22.5 to 11.7 [p=0.639]). In addition, a subgroup analysis by age suggested that the benefit

of clopidogrel in patients over 75 years was less than that observed in patients ≤75 years.

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Acute coronary syndrome

MedicinalThe CURE study included 12,562 patients with non-ST segment elevation acute coronary syndrome (unstable angina or non-Q-wave myocardial infarction), and presenting within 24 hours of onset of the

most recent episode of chest pain or symptoms consistent with ischaemia. Patients were required to have either ECG changes compatible with new ischaemia or elevated cardiac enzymes or troponin I or T to at least twice the upper limit of normal. Patients were randomised to clopidogrel (300 mg loading dose followed by 75 mg/day, N=6,259) or placebo (N=6,303), both given in combination with ASA (75-325 mg once daily) and other standard therapies. Patients were treated for up to one year. In CURE, 823 (6.6%) patients received concomitant GPIIb/IIIa receptor antagonist therapy. Heparins were administered in more than 90% of the patients and the relative rate of bleeding between clopidogrel and placebo was not significantly affected by the concomitant heparin therapy.

The number of patients experiencing the primary endpoint [cardiovascular (CV) death, myocardial infarction (MI), or stroke] was 582 (9.3%) in the clopidogrel-treated group and 719 (11.4%) in the placebo-treated group, a 20% relative risk reduction (95% CI of 10%-28%; p=0.00009) for the clopidogrel-treated group (17% relative risk reduction when patients were treated conservatively, 29% when they underwent percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) with or without stent and 10% when they underwent coronary artery bypass graft (CABG)). New cardiovascular events

(primary endpoint) were prevented, with relative risk reductions of 22% (CI: 8.6, 33.4), 32% (CI: 12.8, 46.4), 4% (CI: -26.9, 26.7), 6% (CI: -33.5, 34.3) and 14% (CI: -31.6, 44.2), during the 0-1, 1-3, 3-6, 6-9 and 9-12 month study intervals, respectively. Thus, beyond 3 months of treatment, the benefit observed in the clopidogrel + ASA group was not further increased, whereas the risk of haemorrhage persisted (see section 4.4).

The use of clopidogrel in CURE was associated with a decrease in the need of thrombolytic therapy (RRR = 43.3%; CI: 24.3%, 57.5%) and GPIIb/IIIa inhibitors (RRR = 18.2%; CI: 6.5%, 28.3%).

clopidogrel compared to placebo, demonstrated a significant RRR of 26.2%authorisedfavouring clopidogrel for the co-primary endpoint (CV death, MI, stroke) and also a significant RRR of 23.9% for the second co-

The number of patients experiencing the co-primary endpoint (CV death, MI, stroke or refractory ischaemia) was 1,035 (16.5%) in the clopidogrel-treated group and 1,187 (18.8%) in the placebo-

treated group, a 14% relative risk reduction (95% CI of 6%-21%, p=0.0005) for the clopidogrel-treated

group. This benefit was mostly driven by the statistically significant reduction in the incidence of MI

[287 (4.6%) in the clopidogrel treated group and 363 (5.8%) in the placebo treated group]. There was no observed effect on the rate of rehospitalisation for unstable angina.

The results obtained in populations with different characteristics (e.g. unstable angina or non-Q-wave

MI, low to high risk levels, diabetes, need for revascularisation, age, gender, etc.) were consistent with

the results of the primary analysis. In particular, in a post-hoc analysis in 2,172 patients (17% of the total CURE population) who underwent stent placement (Stent-CURE), the data showed that

primary endpoint (CV death, MI, stroke or refractory ischaemia). Moreover, the safety profile of clopidogrel in this subgroup of patients did not raise any particular concern. Thus, the results from this subset are in line with the overall trial results.

The benefits observed with clopidogrel were independent of other acute and long-term cardiovascular

The CLARITY trial included 3,491 patients presenting within 12 hours of the onset of a ST elevation MI and planned for thrombolytic therapy. Patients received clopidogrel (300 mg loading dose, followed by 75 mg/day, n=1,752) or placebo (n=1,739), both in combination with ASA (150 to

therapies (such as heparin/LMWH, GPIIb/IIIa antagonists, lipid lowering medicinal products, beta

 

 

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blockers, and ACE-inhibitors). The efficacy of clopidogrel was observed independently of the dose of

ASA (75-325 mg once daily).

no

 

 

 

In patients with acute ST-segment elevation MI, safety and efficacy of clopidogrel have been

evaluated in 2 randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind studies, CLARITY and COMMIT.

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325 mg as a loading dose, followed by 75 to 162 mg/day), a fibrinolytic agent and, when appropriate,

Medicinalheparin. The patients were followed for 30 days. The primary endpoint was the occurrence of the composite of an occluded infarct-related artery on the predischarge angiogram, or death or recurrent

MI before coronary angiography. For patients who did not undergo angiography, the primary endpoint was death or recurrent myocardial infarction by Day 8 or by hospital discharge. The patient population included 19.7% women and 29.2% patients ≥ 65 years. A total of 99.7% of patients received fibrinolytics (fibrin specific: 68.7%, non-fibrin specific: 31.1%), 89.5% heparin, 78.7% beta blockers, 54.7% ACE inhibitors and 63% statins.

Fifteen percent (15.0%) of patients in the clopidogrel group and 21.7% in the placebo group reached the primary endpoint, representing an absolute reduction of 6.7% and a 36 % odds reduction in favor of clopidogrel (95% CI: 24, 47%; p < 0.001), mainly related to a reduction in occluded infarct-related arteries. This benefit was consistent across all prespecified subgroups including patients’ age and gender, infarct location, and type of fibrinolytic or heparin used.

The 2x2 factorial design COMMIT trial included 45,852 patients presenting within 24 hours of the onset of the symptoms of suspected MI with supporting ECG abnormalities (i.e. ST elevation, ST depression or left bundle-branch block). Patients received clopidogrel (75 mg/day, n=22,961) or placebo (n=22,891), in combination with ASA (162 mg/day), for 28 days or until hospital discharge. The co-primary endpoints were death from any cause and the first occurrence of re-infarction, stroke

or death. The population included 27.8% women, 58.4% patients ≥ 60 years (26% ≥ 70 years) and 54.5% patients who received fibrinolytics.

Clopidogrel significantly reduced the relative risk of death from any cause by 7% (p = 0.029), and the relative risk of the combination of re-infarction, stroke or death by 9% (p = 0.002), representing an absolute reduction of 0.5% and 0.9%, respectively. This benefit was consistent across age, gender and with or without fibrinolytics, and was observed as early as 24 hours.

5.2Pharmacokinetic properties

Absorption

authorised

 

After single and repeated oral doses of 75 mg per day, clopidogrel is rapidly absorbed. Mean peak

plasma levels of unchanged clopidogrel (approximately 2.2-2.5 ng/ml after a single 75 mg oral dose) occurred approximately 45 minutes after dosing. Absorption is at least 50%, based on urinary excretion of clopidogrel metabolites.

Distribution

Clopidogrel and the main circulating (inactive) metabolite bind reversibly in vitro to human plasma proteins (98% and 94% respectively). The binding is non-saturable in vitro over a wide concentration range.

Metabolism

 

 

longer

 

 

 

Clopidogrel is extensively metabolised by the liver. In vitro and in vivo, clopidogrel is metabolised

according to two main metabolic pathways: one mediated by esterases and leading to hydrolysis into

its inactive carboxylic acid derivative (85% of circulating metabolites), and one mediated by multiple

cytochromes P450. Clopidogrel is first metabolised to a 2-oxo-clopidogrel intermediate metabolite.

Subsequent metabolism of the 2-oxo-clopidogrel intermediate metabolite results in formation of the

 

 

no

 

active metabolite, a thiol derivative of clopidogrel. In vitro, this metabolic pathway is mediated by

CYP3A4, CYP2C19, CYP1A2 and CYP2B6. The active thiol metabolite which has been isolated

in vitro, binds rapidly and irreversibly to platelet receptors, thus inhibiting platelet aggregation.

Elimination

product

 

 

Following an oral dose of 14C-labelled clopidogrel in man, approximately 50% was excreted in the

urine and approximately 46% in the faeces in the 120-hour interval after dosing. After a single oral

dose of 75 mg, clopidogrel has a half-life of approximately 6 hours. The elimination half-life of the

main circulating (inactive) metabolite was 8 hours after single and repeated administration.

Pharmacogenetics

 

 

 

Medicinal

 

 

 

Several polymorphic CYP450 enzymes activate clopidogrel. CYP2C19 is involved in the formation of both the active metabolite and the 2-oxo-clopidogrel intermediate metabolite. Clopidogrel active metabolite pharmacokinetics and antiplatelet effects, as measured by ex vivo platelet aggregation assays, differ according to CYP2C19 genotype. The CYP2C19*1 allele corresponds to fully functional metabolism while the CYP2C19*2 and CYP2C19*3 alleles correspond to reduced metabolism. The CYP2C19*2 and CYP2C19*3 alleles account for 85% of reduced function alleles in whites and 99% in Asians. Other alleles associated with reduced metabolism include CYP2C19*4, *5, *6, *7, and *8, but these are less frequent in the general population. Published frequencies for the common CYP2C19 phenotypes and genotypes are listed in the table below.

Special populations

CYP2C19 Phenotype and Genotype Frequency

 

 

Frequency (%)

 

 

White (n=1356)

Black (n=966)

Chinese (n=573)

 

 

 

 

 

Extensive metabolism: CYP2C19*1/*1

 

Intermediate metabolism: CYP2C19*1/*2 or *1/*3

 

 

 

Poor metabolism: CYP2C19*2/*2, *2/*3 or *3/*3

authorised

 

To date, the impact of CYP2C19 genotype on the pharmacokinetics of the active metabolite of clopidogrel has been evaluated in 227 subjects from 7 reported studies. Reduced CYP2C19 metabolism in intermediate and poor metabolisers decreased the Cmax and AUC of the active metabolite by 30-50% following 300- or 600-mg loading doses and 75-mg maintenance doses. Lower active metabolite exposure results in less platelet inhibition or higher residual platelet reactivity. To date, diminished antiplatelet responses to clopidogrel have been described for intermediate and poor metabolisers in 21 reported studies involving 4,520 subjects. The relative difference in antiplatelet response between genotype groups varies across studies depending on the method used to evaluate

response, but is typically greater than 30%.

longer

 

The association between CYP2C19 genotype and clopidogrel treatment outcome was evaluated in 2 post hoc clinical trial analyses (substudies of CLARITY [n=465] and TRITON-TIMI 38 [n=1,477])

and 5 cohort studies (total n=6,489). In CLARITY and one of the cohort studies (n=765; Trenk), cardiovascular event rates did not differ significantly by genotype. In TRITON-TIMI 38 and 3 of the cohort studies (n= 3,516; Collet, Sibbing, Giusti), patients with an impaired metaboliser status (intermediate and poor combined) had a highernorate of cardiovascular events (death, myocardial

infarction, and stroke) or stent thrombosis compared to extensive metabolisers. In the fifth cohort study (n=2,208; Simon), the increased event rate was observed only in poor metabolisers.

Pharmacogenetic testingproductcan identify genotypes associated with variability in CYP2C19 activity.

There may be genetic variants of other CYP450 enzymes with effects on the ability to form the active metabolite of clopidogrel.

MedicinalThe pharmacokinetics of the active metabolite of clopidogrel is not known in these special populations.

Renal impairment

After repeated doses of 75 mg clopidogrel per day in subjects with severe renal disease (creatinine clearance from 5 to 15 ml/min), inhibition of ADP-induced platelet aggregation was lower (25%) than that observed in healthy subjects, however, the prolongation of bleeding time was similar to that seen in healthy subjects receiving 75 mg of clopidogrel per day. In addition, clinical tolerance was good in all patients.

Hepatic impairment

After repeated doses of 75 mg clopidogrel per day for 10 days in patients with severe hepatic impairment, inhibition of ADP-induced platelet aggregation was similar to that observed in healthy subjects. The mean bleeding time prolongation was also similar in the two groups.

Race

The prevalence of CYP2C19 alleles that result in intermediate and poor CYP2C19 metabolism differs according to race/ethnicity (see Pharmacogenetics). From literature, limited data in Asian populations are available to assess the clinical implication of genotyping of this CYP on clinical outcome events.

5.3Preclinical safety data

During non clinical studies in rat and baboon, the most frequently observed effects were liver changes. These occurred at doses representing at least 25 times the exposure seen in humans receiving the clinical dose of 75 mg/day and were a consequence of an effect on hepatic metabolising enzymes. No effect on hepatic metabolising enzymes was observed in humans receiving clopidogrel at the therapeutic dose.

At very high doses, a poor gastric tolerability (gastritis, gastric erosions and/or vomiting) of

clopidogrel was also reported in rat and baboon.

authorised

 

There was no evidence of carcinogenic effect when clopidogrel was administered for 78 weeks to mice and 104 weeks to rats when given at doses up to 77 mg/kg per day (representing at least 25 times the exposure seen in humans receiving the clinical dose of 75 mg/day).

Clopidogrel has been tested in a range of in vitro and in vivo genotoxicity studies, and showed no genotoxic activity.

Clopidogrel was found to have no effect on the fertility of male and female rats and was not teratogenic in either rats or rabbits. When given to lactating rats, clopidogrel caused a slight delay in

the development of the offspring. Specific pharmacokinetic studies performed with radiolabelled clopidogrel have shown that the parent compound or itslongermetabolites are excreted in the milk. Consequently, a direct effect (slight toxicity), or an indirect effect (low palatability) cannot be

excluded.

6.PHARMACEUTICAL PARTICULARS

6.1

List of excipients

no

 

Core:

 

 

product

 

 

 

Mannitol (E421)

 

 

 

Macrogol 6000

 

 

 

Microcrystalline cellulose

 

 

 

Hydrogenated castor oil

 

 

 

Low substituted hydroxypropylcellulose

Coating:

Hypromellose (E464)

 

 

 

 

Medicinal

 

 

 

 

Lactose

 

 

 

 

Triacetin (E1518)

 

 

 

Titanium dioxide (E171)

 

 

 

Red iron oxide (E172)

 

Polishing agent:

 

 

 

 

Carnauba wax

 

6.2

Incompatibilities

 

Not applicable

 

 

6.3Shelf-life

3 years

6.4Special precautions for storage

Not all pack sizes may be marketed.

In PVC/PVDC/aluminium blisters, store below 30°C.

In all aluminium blisters, this medicinal product does not require any special storage conditions.

6.5Nature and content of container

PVC/PVDC/Aluminium blisters or all aluminium blisters in cardboard cartons containing 7, 14, 28, 30, 84, 90 and 100 film-coated tablets.

PVC/PVDC/Aluminium or all aluminium perforated unit-dose blister packs in cardboard cartons containing 50x1 film-coated tablets.

6.6Special precautions for disposal

Any unused product or waste material should be disposed of in accordance withauthorisedlocal requirements.

7.MARKETING AUTHORISATION HOLDER

Bristol Myers Squibb Pharma EEIG

 

Uxbridge Business Park

 

Sanderson Road

 

Uxbridge UB8 1DH

 

United Kingdom

 

8. MARKETING AUTHORISATION NUMBERS

 

longer

EU/1/08/464/001 - Cartons of 14 film-coated tablets in PVC/PVDC/Alu blisters

EU/1/08/464/003 - Cartons of 28 film-coated tabletsnoin PVC/PVDC/Alu blisters

EU/1/08/464/004 - Cartons of 28 film-coated tablets in all aluminium blisters

EU/1/08/464/002 - Cartons of 14 film-coated tablets in all aluminium blisters

EU/1/08/464/005 - Cartonsproductof 30 film-coated tablets in PVC/PVDC/Alu blisters

EU/1/08/464/006 - Cartons of 30 film-coated tablets in all aluminium blisters

EU/1/08/464/007 - Cartons of 50x1 film-coated tablets in PVC/PVDC/Alu blisters

EU/1/08/464/008 - Cartons of 50x1 film-coated tablets in all aluminium blisters

EU/1/08/464/009 - Cartons of 84 film-coated tablets in PVC/PVDC/Alu blisters

EU/1/08/464/010 - Cartons of 84 film-coated tablets in all aluminium blisters

MedicinalEU/1/08/464/011 - Cartons of 90 film-coated tablets in PVC/PVDC/Alu blisters EU/1/08/464/012 - Cartons of 90 film-coated tablets in all aluminium blisters

EU/1/08/464/013 - Cartons of 100 film-coated tablets in PVC/PVDC/Alu blisters

EU/1/08/464/014 - Cartons of 100 film-coated tablets in all aluminium blisters

EU/1/08/464/018 - Cartons of 7 film-coated tablets in PVC/PVDC/Alu blisters

EU/1/08/464/019 - Cartons of 7 film-coated tablets in all aluminium blisters

9. DATE OF FIRST AUTHORISATION/RENEWAL OF THE AUTHORISATION

Date of first authorisation: 16 July 2008

10.DATE OF REVISION OF THE TEXT

Detailed information on this product is available on the website of the European Medicines Agency (EMEA): http://www.emea.europa.eu/

1. NAME OF THE MEDICINAL PRODUCT

Clopidogrel BMS 300 mg film-coated tablets

2. QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE COMPOSITION

Each film-coated tablet contains 300 mg of clopidogrel (as hydrogen sulphate). Excipients: each tablet contains 12 mg lactose and 13.2 mg hydrogenated castor oil.

For a full list of excipients, see section 6.1.

3. PHARMACEUTICAL FORM

Film-coated tablet.

Pink, oblong, engraved with «300» on one side and «1332» on the other side.

authorised

4.CLINICAL PARTICULARS

4.1Therapeutic indications

 

 

 

longer

Clopidogrel is indicated in adults for the prevention of atherothrombotic events in:

Patients suffering from myocardial infarction (from a few days until less than 35 days),

 

 

no

 

 

ischaemic stroke (from 7 days until less than 6 months) or established peripheral arterial disease.

Patients suffering from acute coronary syndrome:

 

product

 

 

 

- Non-ST segment elevation acute coronary syndrome (unstable angina or non-Q-wave

 

myocardial infarction), including patients undergoing a stent placement following

 

percutaneous coronary intervention, in combination with acetylsalicylic acid (ASA).

 

- ST segment elevation acute myocardial infarction, in combination with ASA in medically

 

treated patients eligible for thrombolytic therapy.

 

For further information please refer to section 5.1.

 

Medicinalacute coronary syndrome:

 

 

4.2 Posology and method of administration

 

Adults and elderly

 

 

 

This 300 mg tablet of clopidogrel is intended for use as a loading dose in patients suffering from

Non-ST segment elevation acute coronary syndrome (unstable angina or non-Q-wave myocardial infarction): clopidogrel treatment should be initiated with a single 300 mg loading dose and then continued at 75 mg once a day (with acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) 75 mg-325 mg daily). Since higher doses of ASA were associated with higher bleeding risk it is recommended that the dose of ASA should not be higher than 100 mg. The optimal duration of treatment has not been formally established. Clinical trial data support use up to 12 months, and the maximum benefit was seen at 3 months (see section 5.1).

ST segment elevation acute myocardial infarction: clopidogrel should be given as a single daily dose of 75 mg initiated with a 300-mg loading dose in combination with ASA and with or without thrombolytics. For patients over 75 years of age clopidogrel, should be initiated without a loading dose. Combined therapy should be started as early as possible after symptoms start and continued for at least four weeks. The benefit of the

combination of clopidogrel with ASA beyond four weeks has not been studied in this setting (see section 5.1).

For the maintenance dose, clopidogrel should be given as a single daily dose of 75 mg with or without food. For this dose, tablets containing 75 mg are available.

Pharmacogenetics

CYP2C19 poor metaboliser status is associated with diminished response to clopidogrel. The optimal dose regimen for poor metabolisers has yet to be determined (see section 5.2).

Paediatric patients

The safety and efficacy of clopidogrel in children and adolescents have not yet been established.

Renal impairment

Therapeutic experience is limited in patients with renal impairment (see section 4.4).

Hepatic impairment

Therapeutic experience is limited in patients with moderate hepatic disease who may have bleeding diatheses (see section 4.4).authorised

4.3 Contraindications

Hypersensitivity to the active substance or to any of the excipients.

Severe liver impairment.

Active pathological bleeding such as peptic ulcer or intracranial haemorrhage.

4.4 Special warnings and precautions for use

longer

no

 

Due to the risk of bleeding and haematological undesirable effects, blood cell count determination

and/or other appropriate testing should be promptly considered whenever clinical symptoms suggestive of bleeding arise duringproductthe course of treatment (see section 4.8). As with other antiplatelet agents, clopidogrel should be used with caution in patients who may be at risk of increased bleeding from

trauma, surgery or other pathological conditions and in patients receiving treatment with ASA, heparin, glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors, or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) including Cox-2 inhibitors. Patients should be followed carefully for any signs of bleeding including occult bleeding, especially during the first weeks of treatment and/or after invasive cardiac procedures or surgery. The concomitant administration of clopidogrel with oral anticoagulants is not recommended since it may

increase the intensity of bleedings (see section 4.5).

MedicinalIf a patient is to undergo elective surgery and antiplatelet effect is temporarily not desirable, clopidogrel should be discontinued 7 days prior to surgery. Patients should inform physicians and

dentists that they are taking clopidogrel before any surgery is scheduled and before any new medicinal product is taken. Clopidogrel prolongs bleeding time and should be used with caution in patients who have lesions with a propensity to bleed (particularly gastrointestinal and intraocular).

Patients should be told that it might take longer than usual to stop bleeding when they take clopidogrel (alone or in combination with ASA), and that they should report any unusual bleeding (site or duration) to their physician.

Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura (TTP) has been reported very rarely following the use of clopidogrel, sometimes after a short exposure. It is characterised by thrombocytopenia and microangiopathic haemolytic anaemia associated with either neurological findings, renal dysfunction or fever. TTP is a potentially fatal condition requiring prompt treatment including plasmapheresis.

In view of the lack of data, clopidogrel cannot be recommended during the first 7 days after acute ischaemic stroke.

Pharmacogenetics: Based on literature data, patients with genetically reduced CYP2C19 function have lower systemic exposure to the active metabolite of clopidogrel and diminished antiplatelet responses, and generally exhibit higher cardiovascular event rates following myocardial infarction than do patients with normal CYP2C19 function (see section 5.2).

Since clopidogrel is metabolised to its active metabolite partly by CYP2C19, use of drugs that inhibit the activity of this enzyme would be expected to result in reduced drug levels of the active metabolite of clopidogrel and a reduction in clinical efficacy. Concomitant use of drugs that inhibit CYP2C19

should be discouraged (see section 4.5 for a list of CYP2C19 inhibitors, see also section 5.2). Although the evidence of CYP2C19 inhibition varies within the class of Proton Pump Inhibitors,

Experience is limited in patients with moderate hepatic disease who may haveauthorisedbleeding diatheses. Clopidogrel should therefore be used with caution in this population (see section 4.2).

clinical studies suggest an interaction between clopidogrel and possibly all members of this class.

Therefore, concomitant use of Proton Pump Inhibitors should be avoided unless absolutely necessary. There is no evidence that other drugs that reduce stomach acid such as H2 blockers or antacids interfere with antiplatelet activity of clopidogrel.

Therapeutic experience with clopidogrel is limited in patients with renal impairment. Therefore clopidogrel should be used with caution in these patients (see section 4.2).

longer 4.5 Interaction with other medicinal products and other forms of interaction

Clopidogrel BMS contains lactose. Patients with rare hereditary problems of galactose intolerance, the Lapp lactase deficiency or glucose-galactose malabsorption should not take this medicinal product.

This medicinal product contains hydrogenated castor oil which may cause stomach upset and diarrhoea.

Oral anticoagulants: the concomitant administration of clopidogrel with oral anticoagulants is not

 

no

recommended since it may increase the intensity of bleedings (see section 4.4).

product

 

Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors: clopidogrel should be used with caution in patients who may be at risk of increased bleeding from trauma, surgery or other pathological conditions that receive concomitant glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors (see section 4.4).

Acetylsalicylic acid (ASA): ASA did not modify the clopidogrel-mediated inhibition of ADP-induced

platelet aggregation, but clopidogrel potentiated the effect of ASA on collagen-induced platelet Medicinalaggregation. However, concomitant administration of 500 mg of ASA twice a day for one day did not

significantly increase the prolongation of bleeding time induced by clopidogrel intake. A pharmacodynamic interaction between clopidogrel and acetylsalicylic acid is possible, leading to increased risk of bleeding. Therefore, concomitant use should be undertaken with caution (see section 4.4). However, clopidogrel and ASA have been administered together for up to one year (see section 5.1).

Heparin: in a clinical study conducted in healthy subjects, clopidogrel did not necessitate modification of the heparin dose or alter the effect of heparin on coagulation. Co-administration of heparin had no effect on the inhibition of platelet aggregation induced by clopidogrel. A pharmacodynamic interaction between clopidogrel and heparin is possible, leading to increased risk of bleeding. Therefore, concomitant use should be undertaken with caution (see section 4.4).

Thrombolytics: the safety of the concomitant administration of clopidogrel, fibrin or non-fibrin specific thrombolytic agents and heparins was assessed in patients with acute myocardial infarction. The incidence of clinically significant bleeding was similar to that observed when thrombolytic agents and heparin are co-administered with ASA (see section 4.8)

NSAIDs: in a clinical study conducted in healthy volunteers, the concomitant administration of clopidogrel and naproxen increased occult gastrointestinal blood loss. However, due to the lack of interaction studies with other NSAIDs it is presently unclear whether there is an increased risk of gastrointestinal bleeding with all NSAIDs. Consequently, NSAIDs including Cox-2 inhibitors and clopidogrel should be co-administered with caution (see section 4.4).

Other concomitant therapy:

Since clopidogrel is metabolised to its active metabolite partly by CYP2C19, use of drugs that inhibit

the activity of this enzyme would be expected to result in reduced drug levels of the active metabolite

of clopidogrel and a reduction in clinical efficacy. Concomitant use of drugs that inhibit CYP2C19

should be discouraged (see sections 4.4 and 5.2).

authorised

 

Drugs that inhibit CYP2C19 include omeprazole and esomeprazole, fluvoxamine, fluoxetine, moclobemide, voriconazole, fluconazole, ticlopidine, ciprofloxacin, cimetidine, carbamazepine, oxcarbazepine and chloramphenicol.

Proton Pump Inhibitors:

Although the evidence of CYP2C19 inhibition varies within the class of Proton Pump Inhibitors, clinical studies suggest an interaction between clopidogrel and possibly all members of this class.

Therefore, concomitant use of Proton Pump Inhibitors should be avoided unless absolutely necessary.

There is no evidence that other drugs that reduce stomach acid such as H2 blockers or antacids

interfere with antiplatelet activity of clopidogrel.

longer

 

A number of other clinical studies have been conducted with clopidogrel and other concomitant medicinal products to investigate the potential for pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic interactions. No clinically significant pharmacodynamic interactions were observed when clopidogrel was co- administered with atenolol, nifedipine, or both atenolol and nifedipine. Furthermore, the

 

no

pharmacodynamic activity of clopidogrel was not significantly influenced by the co-administration of

phenobarbital, cimetidine or oestrogen.

 

The pharmacokinetics of digoxin or theophylline were not modified by the co-administration of

product

 

clopidogrel. Antacids did not modify the extent of clopidogrel absorption.

Data from studies with human liver microsomes indicated that the carboxylic acid metabolite of clopidogrel could inhibit the activity of Cytochrome P450 2C9. This could potentially lead to increased

plasma levels of medicinal products such as phenytoin and tolbutamide and the NSAIDs, which are metabolised by Cytochrome P450 2C9. Data from the CAPRIE study indicate that phenytoin and

tolbutamide can be safely co-administered with clopidogrel.

MedicinalApart from the specific medicinal product interaction information described above, interaction studies with clopidogrel and some medicinal products commonly administered in patients with

atherothrombotic disease have not been performed. However, patients entered into clinical trials with clopidogrel received a variety of concomitant medicinal products including diuretics, beta blockers, ACEI, calcium antagonists, cholesterol lowering agents, coronary vasodilators, antidiabetic agents (including insulin), antiepileptic agents and GPIIb/IIIa antagonists without evidence of clinically significant adverse interactions.

4.6 Pregnancy and lactation

As no clinical data on exposure to clopidogrel during pregnancy are available, it is preferable not to use clopidogrel during pregnancy as a precautionary measure.

Animal studies do not indicate direct or indirect harmful effects with respect to pregnancy, embryonal/foetal development, parturition or postnatal development (see section 5.3).

It is unknown whether clopidogrel is excreted in human breast milk. Animal studies have shown excretion of clopidogrel in breast milk. As a precautionary measure, breast-feeding should not be continued during treatment with Clopidogrel BMS.

4.7 Effects on ability to drive and use machines

Clopidogrel has no or negligible influence on the ability to drive and use machines.

4.8 Undesirable effects

In CAPRIE, in patients treated with either clopidogrel or ASA, the overall incidenceauthorisedof any bleeding was 9.3%. The incidence of severe cases was 1.4% for clopidogrel and 1.6% for ASA.

Clopidogrel has been evaluated for safety in more than 42,000 patients who have participated in clinical studies, including over 9,000 patients treated for 1 year or more. The clinically relevant adverse reactions observed in the CAPRIE, CURE, CLARITY and COMMIT studies are discussed

below. Overall, clopidogrel 75 mg/day was comparable to ASA 325 mg/day in CAPRIE regardless of age, gender and race. In addition to clinical studies experience, adverse reactions have been spontaneously reported.

Bleeding is the most common reaction reported both in clinical studies as well as in post-marketing experience where it was mostly reported during the first month of treatment.

In CURE, the major bleeding event rate for clopidogrel+ASA was dose-dependent on ASA (<100mg: 2.6%; 100-200mg: 3.5%; >200mg: 4.9%) as was the major bleeding event rate for placebo+ASA (<100mg: 2.0%; 100-200mg: 2.3%; >200mg: 4.0%). The risk of bleeding (life-threatening, major, minor, other) decreased during the course of the trial: 0-1 months (clopidogrel: 9.6%; placebo: 6.6%),

1-3 months (clopidogrel: 4.5%; placebo: 2.3%),

3-6 months (clopidogrel: 3.8%; placebo: 1.6%),

6-9 months (clopidogrel: 3.2%; placebo: 1.5%),

 

longer

9-12 months (clopidogrel: 1.9%; placebo: 1.0%).

no

 

There was no excess in major bleeds with clopidogrel + ASA within 7 days after coronary bypass graft surgery in patients who productstopped therapy more than five days prior to surgery (4.4% clopidogrel+ASA

vs. 5.3% placebo+ASA). In patients who remained on therapy within five days of bypass graft surgery, the event rate was 9.6% for clopidogrel+ASA, and 6.3% for placebo+ASA.

In CLARITY, there was an overall increase in bleeding in the clopidogrel + ASA group (17.4%) vs. the placebo + ASA group (12.9%).The incidence of major bleeding was similar between groups (1.3% versus 1.1% for the clopidogrel + ASA and the placebo + ASA groups, respectively). This was

consistent across subgroups of patients defined by baseline characteristics, and type of fibrinolytic or

Medicinalheparin therapy.

In COMMIT, the overall rate of noncerebral major bleeding or cerebral bleeding was low and similar in both groups (0.6% versus 0.5% in the clopidogrel + ASA and the placebo + ASA groups, respectively).

Adverse reactions that occurred either during clinical studies or that were spontaneously reported are presented in the table below. Their frequency is defined using the following conventions: common (≥1/100 to <1/10); uncommon (≥1/1,000 to <1/100); rare (≥1/10,000 to <1/1,000); very rare (<1/10,000). Within each system organ class, adverse drug reactions are presented in order of decreasing seriousness.

System Organ

Common

Uncommon

Rare

Very rare

Class

 

 

 

 

Blood and the

 

Thrombocytopenia,

Neutropenia,

Thrombotic

lymphatic system

 

leucopenia,

including

thrombocytopenic

disorders

 

eosinophilia

severe

purpura (TTP) (see

 

 

 

neutropenia

section 4.4), aplastic

 

 

 

 

anaemia, pancytopenia,

 

 

 

 

agranulocytosis, severe

 

 

 

 

thrombocytopenia,

Immune system disorders

Psychiatric disorders

Nervous system disorders

Eye disorders

Ear and labyrinth disorders

Vascular disorders

Respiratory, thoracic and mediastinal

disorders MedicinalGastrointestinal disorders

Hepato-biliary disorders

 

 

 

 

 

authorised

 

 

 

 

 

 

granulocytopenia,

 

 

 

 

 

 

anaemia

 

 

 

 

 

 

Serum sickness,

 

 

 

 

 

 

anaphylactoid

 

 

 

 

 

 

reactions

 

 

 

 

 

 

Hallucinations,

 

 

 

 

 

 

confusion

 

Intracranial

 

 

 

Taste disturbances

 

bleeding (some

 

 

 

 

 

cases were

 

 

 

 

 

reported with fatal

 

 

 

 

outcome),

longer

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

headache,

 

 

 

 

 

paraesthesia,

 

 

 

 

 

dizziness

 

 

 

 

 

Eye bleeding

 

 

 

 

 

(conjunctival,

 

 

 

 

 

ocular, retinal)

 

 

 

 

product

no

 

Vertigo

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Serious haemorrhage,

Haematoma

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

haemorrhage of

 

 

 

 

 

 

operative wound,

 

 

 

 

 

 

vasculitis, hypotension

Epistaxis

 

 

 

 

 

Respiratory tract

 

 

 

 

 

 

bleeding (haemoptysis,

 

 

 

 

 

 

pulmonary

 

 

 

 

 

 

haemorrhage),

 

 

 

 

 

 

bronchospasm,

 

 

 

 

 

 

interstitial pneumonitis

Gastrointestinal

Gastric ulcer and

Retroperitoneal

Gastrointestinal and

haemorrhage,

duodenal ulcer,

 

haemorrhage

 

retroperitoneal

diarrhoea,

gastritis, vomiting,

 

 

haemorrhage with fatal

abdominal

nausea,

 

 

 

outcome, pancreatitis,

pain, dyspepsia

constipation,

 

 

 

colitis (including

 

flatulence

 

 

 

ulcerative or

 

 

 

 

 

 

lymphocytic colitis),

 

 

 

 

 

 

stomatitis

 

 

 

 

 

 

Acute liver failure,

 

 

 

 

 

 

hepatitis, abnormal

 

 

 

 

 

 

liver function test

System Organ

Common

Uncommon

Rare

Very rare

 

Class

 

 

 

 

 

 

Skin and

Bruising

Rash, pruritus, skin

 

Bullous dermatitis

 

subcutaneous tissue

 

bleeding (purpura)

 

(toxic epidermal

 

disorders

 

 

 

 

necrolysis, Stevens

 

 

 

 

 

 

Johnson Syndrome,

 

 

 

 

 

 

erythema multiforme),

 

 

 

 

 

 

angioedema, rash

 

 

 

 

 

 

erythematous,

 

 

 

 

 

 

urticaria, eczema,

 

 

 

 

 

 

lichen planus

 

Musculoskeletal,

 

 

 

 

Musculo-skeletal

 

connective tissue

 

 

 

 

bleeding

 

and bone disorders

 

 

 

 

(haemarthrosis),

 

 

 

 

 

 

arthritis, arthralgia,

 

 

 

 

 

 

myalgia

 

Renal and urinary

 

Haematuria

 

 

Glomerulonephritis,

 

disorders

 

 

 

 

blood creatinine

 

 

 

 

 

 

increased

 

General disorders

Bleeding at

 

 

 

Fever

 

and administration

puncture site

 

 

 

authorised

 

site conditions

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Investigations

 

Bleeding time

 

 

 

 

 

 

prolonged,

 

 

 

 

 

 

neutrophil count

 

 

 

 

 

decreased, platelet

 

 

 

 

 

count decreased

 

 

 

 

 

 

longer

 

 

4.9 Overdose

 

 

product

no

Overdose following clopidogrel administration may lead to prolonged bleeding time and subsequent

bleeding complications. Appropriate therapy should be considered if bleedings are observed.

No antidote to the pharmacological activity of clopidogrel has been found. If prompt correction of

prolonged bleeding time is required, platelet transfusion may reverse the effects of clopidogrel.

5.

PHARMACOLOGICAL PROPERTIES

Medicinal

 

 

5.1

Pharmacodynamic properties

 

Pharmacotherapeutic group: platelet aggregation inhibitors excl. heparin, ATC Code: B01AC-04.

Clopidogrel is a prodrug, one of whose metabolites is an inhibitor of platelet aggregation. Clopidogrel must be metabolised by CYP450 enzymes to produce the active metabolite that inhibits platelet aggregation. The active metabolite of clopidogrel selectively inhibits the binding of adenosine diphosphate (ADP) to its platelet P2Y12 receptor and the subsequent ADP-mediated activation of the glycoprotein GPIIb/IIIa complex, thereby inhibiting platelet aggregation. Due to the irreversible binding, platelets exposed are affected for the remainder of their lifespan (approximately 7-10 days) and recovery of normal platelet function occurs at a rate consistent with platelet turnover. Platelet aggregation induced by agonists other than ADP is also inhibited by blocking the amplification of platelet activation by released ADP.

Because the active metabolite is formed by CYP450 enzymes, some of which are polymorphic or subject to inhibition by other drugs, not all patients will have adequate platelet inhibition.

Repeated doses of 75 mg per day produced substantial inhibition of ADP-induced platelet aggregation from the first day; this increased progressively and reached steady state between Day 3 and Day 7. At

steady state, the average inhibition level observed with a dose of 75 mg per day was between 40% and 60%. Platelet aggregation and bleeding time gradually returned to baseline values, generally within

5 days after treatment was discontinued.

The safety and efficacy of clopidogrel have been evaluated in 4 double-blind studies involving over 80,000 patients: the CAPRIE study, a comparison of clopidogrel to ASA, and the CURE, CLARITY and COMMIT studies comparing clopidogrel to placebo, both medicinal products given in combination with ASA and other standard therapy.

treat analysis, 939 events were observed in the clopidogrel group and 1,020authorisedevents with ASA (relative risk reduction (RRR) 8.7%, [95% CI: 0.2 to 16.4]; p = 0.045), which corresponds, for every

Recent myocardial infarction (MI), recent stroke or established peripheral arterial disease

The CAPRIE study included 19,185 patients with atherothrombosis as manifested by recent myocardial infarction (<35 days), recent ischaemic stroke (between 7 days and 6 months) or established peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Patients were randomised to clopidogrel 75 mg/day or

ASA 325 mg/day, and were followed for 1 to 3 years. In the myocardial infarction subgroup, most of the patients received ASA for the first few days following the acute myocardial infarction.

Clopidogrel significantly reduced the incidence of new ischaemic events (combined end point of

myocardial infarction, ischaemic stroke and vascular death) when compared to ASA. In the intention to

to PAD (especially those who also had a history of myocardiallongerinfarction) (RRR = 23.7%; CI: 8.9 to 36.2) and weaker (not significantly different from ASA) in stroke patients (RRR = 7.3%; CI: -5.7 to

1,000 patients treated for 2 years, to 10 [CI: 0 to 20] additional patients being prevented from

experiencing a new ischaemic event. Analysis of total mortality as a secondary endpoint did not show any significant difference between clopidogrel (5.8%) and ASA (6.0%).

In a subgroup analysis by qualifying condition (myocardial infarction, ischaemic stroke, and PAD) the

benefit appeared to be strongest (achieving statistical significance at p = 0.003) in patients enrolled due

Since the CAPRIE trial was not powered to evaluate efficacy of individual subgroups, it is not clear whether the differences in relative risk reduction across qualifying conditions are real, or a result of chance.

18.7 [p=0.258]). In patients who were enrolled in the trial on the sole basis of a recent myocardial

infarction, clopidogrel was numerically inferior, but not statistically different from ASA (RRR =

 

no

-4.0%; CI: -22.5 to 11.7 [p=0.639]). In addition, a subgroup analysis by age suggested that the benefit

of clopidogrel in patients over 75 years was less than that observed in patients ≤75 years.

product

 

MedicinalAcute coronary syndrome

The CURE study included 12,562 patients with non-ST segment elevation acute coronary syndrome (unstable angina or non-Q-wave myocardial infarction), and presenting within 24 hours of onset of the most recent episode of chest pain or symptoms consistent with ischaemia. Patients were required to have either ECG changes compatible with new ischaemia or elevated cardiac enzymes or troponin I or T to at least twice the upper limit of normal. Patients were randomised to clopidogrel (300 mg loading dose followed by 75 mg/day, N=6,259) or placebo (N=6,303), both given in combination with ASA (75-325 mg once daily) and other standard therapies. Patients were treated for up to one year. In CURE, 823 (6.6%) patients received concomitant GPIIb/IIIa receptor antagonist therapy. Heparins were administered in more than 90% of the patients and the relative rate of bleeding between clopidogrel and placebo was not significantly affected by the concomitant heparin therapy.

The number of patients experiencing the primary endpoint [cardiovascular (CV) death, myocardial infarction (MI), or stroke] was 582 (9.3%) in the clopidogrel-treated group and 719 (11.4%) in the placebo-treated group, a 20% relative risk reduction (95% CI of 10%-28%; p=0.00009) for the clopidogrel-treated group (17% relative risk reduction when patients were treated conservatively, 29% when they underwent percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) with or without stent and 10% when they underwent coronary artery bypass graft (CABG)). New cardiovascular events

(primary endpoint) were prevented, with relative risk reductions of 22% (CI: 8.6, 33.4), 32% (CI: 12.8, 46.4), 4% (CI: -26.9, 26.7), 6% (CI: -33.5, 34.3) and 14% (CI: -31.6, 44.2), during the 0-1, 1-3, 3-6, 6-9 and 9-12 month study intervals, respectively. Thus, beyond 3 months of treatment, the benefit observed in the clopidogrel + ASA group was not further increased, whereas the risk of haemorrhage persisted (see section 4.4).

The use of clopidogrel in CURE was associated with a decrease in the need of thrombolytic therapy (RRR = 43.3%; CI: 24.3%, 57.5%) and GPIIb/IIIa inhibitors (RRR = 18.2%; CI: 6.5%, 28.3%).

clopidogrel compared to placebo, demonstrated a significant RRR of 26.2%authorisedfavouring clopidogrel for the co-primary endpoint (CV death, MI, stroke) and also a significant RRR of 23.9% for the second co-

The number of patients experiencing the co-primary endpoint (CV death, MI, stroke or refractory ischaemia) was 1,035 (16.5%) in the clopidogrel-treated group and 1,187 (18.8%) in the

placebo-treated group, a 14% relative risk reduction (95% CI of 6%-21%, p=0.0005) for the

clopidogrel-treated group. This benefit was mostly driven by the statistically significant reduction in

the incidence of MI [287 (4.6%) in the clopidogrel treated group and 363 (5.8%) in the placebo treated group]. There was no observed effect on the rate of rehospitalisation for unstable angina.

The results obtained in populations with different characteristics (e.g. unstable angina or non-Q-wave

MI, low to high risk levels, diabetes, need for revascularisation, age, gender, etc.) were consistent with

the results of the primary analysis. In particular, in a post-hoc analysis in 2,172 patients (17% of the total CURE population) who underwent stent placement (Stent-CURE), the data showed that

primary endpoint (CV death, MI, stroke or refractory ischaemia). Moreover, the safety profile of clopidogrel in this subgroup of patients did not raise any particular concern. Thus, the results from this subset are in line with the overall trial results.

The benefits observed with clopidogrel were independent of other acute and long-term cardiovascular

The CLARITY trial included 3,491 patients presenting within 12 hours of the onset of a ST elevation MI and planned for thrombolytic therapy. Patients received clopidogrel (300 mg loading dose, followed by 75 mg/day, n=1,752) or placebo (n=1,739), both in combination with ASA (150 to

therapies (such as heparin/LMWH, GPIIb/IIIa antagonists, lipid lowering medicinal products, beta

 

 

longer

blockers, and ACE-inhibitors). The efficacy of clopidogrel was observed independently of the dose of

ASA (75-325 mg once daily).

no

 

 

 

In patients with acute ST-segment elevation MI, safety and efficacy of clopidogrel have been

evaluated in 2 randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind studies, CLARITY and COMMIT.

product

 

 

325 mg as a loading dose, followed by 75 to 162 mg/day), a fibrinolytic agent and, when appropriate,

Medicinalheparin. The patients were followed for 30 days. The primary endpoint was the occurrence of the composite of an occluded infarct-related artery on the predischarge angiogram, or death or recurrent

MI before coronary angiography. For patients who did not undergo angiography, the primary endpoint was death or recurrent myocardial infarction by Day 8 or by hospital discharge. The patient population included 19.7% women and 29.2% patients ≥ 65 years. A total of 99.7% of patients received fibrinolytics (fibrin specific: 68.7%, non-fibrin specific: 31.1%), 89.5% heparin, 78.7% beta blockers, 54.7% ACE inhibitors and 63% statins.

Fifteen percent (15.0%) of patients in the clopidogrel group and 21.7% in the placebo group reached the primary endpoint, representing an absolute reduction of 6.7% and a 36 % odds reduction in favor of clopidogrel (95% CI: 24, 47%; p < 0.001), mainly related to a reduction in occluded infarct-related arteries. This benefit was consistent across all prespecified subgroups including patients’ age and gender, infarct location, and type of fibrinolytic or heparin used.

The 2x2 factorial design COMMIT trial included 45,852 patients presenting within 24 hours of the onset of the symptoms of suspected MI with supporting ECG abnormalities (i.e. ST elevation, ST depression or left bundle-branch block). Patients received clopidogrel (75 mg/day, n=22,961) or placebo (n=22,891), in combination with ASA (162 mg/day), for 28 days or until hospital discharge. The co-primary endpoints were death from any cause and the first occurrence of re-infarction, stroke

or death. The population included 27.8% women, 58.4% patients ≥ 60 years (26% ≥ 70 years) and 54.5% patients who received fibrinolytics.

Clopidogrel significantly reduced the relative risk of death from any cause by 7% (p = 0.029), and the relative risk of the combination of re-infarction, stroke or death by 9% (p = 0.002), representing an absolute reduction of 0.5% and 0.9%, respectively. This benefit was consistent across age, gender and with or without fibrinolytics, and was observed as early as 24 hours.

5.2 Pharmacokinetic properties

Absorption

authorised

 

After single and repeated oral doses of 75 mg per day, clopidogrel is rapidly absorbed. Mean peak

plasma levels of unchanged clopidogrel (approximately 2.2-2.5 ng/ml after a single 75 mg oral dose) occurred approximately 45 minutes after dosing. Absorption is at least 50%, based on urinary excretion of clopidogrel metabolites.

Distribution

Clopidogrel and the main circulating (inactive) metabolite bind reversibly in vitro to human plasma proteins (98% and 94% respectively). The binding is non-saturable in vitro over a wide concentration range.

Metabolism

longer

 

Clopidogrel is extensively metabolised by the liver. In vitro and in vivo, clopidogrel is metabolised according to two main metabolic pathways: one mediated by esterases and leading to hydrolysis into its inactive carboxylic acid derivative (85% of circulating metabolites), and one mediated by multiple cytochromes P450. Clopidogrel is first metabolised to a 2-oxo-clopidogrel intermediate metabolite. Subsequent metabolism of the 2-oxo-clopidogrel intermediate metabolite results in formation of the

active metabolite, a thiol derivative of clopidogrel.noIn vitro, this metabolic pathway is mediated by

CYP3A4, CYP2C19, CYP1A2 and CYP2B6. The active thiol metabolite which has been isolated in vitro, binds rapidly and irreversibly to platelet receptors, thus inhibiting platelet aggregation.

Elimination

product

 

Following an oral dose of 14C-labelled clopidogrel in man, approximately 50% was excreted in the urine and approximately 46% in the faeces in the 120-hour interval after dosing. After a single oral dose of 75 mg, clopidogrel has a half-life of approximately 6 hours. The elimination half-life of the main circulating (inactive) metabolite was 8 hours after single and repeated administration.

Pharmacogenetics

Several polymorphic CYP450 enzymes activate clopidogrel. CYP2C19 is involved in the formation of Medicinalboth the active metabolite and the 2-oxo-clopidogrel intermediate metabolite. Clopidogrel active

metabolite pharmacokinetics and antiplatelet effects, as measured by ex vivo platelet aggregation assays, differ according to CYP2C19 genotype. The CYP2C19*1 allele corresponds to fully functional metabolism while the CYP2C19*2 and CYP2C19*3 alleles correspond to reduced metabolism. The CYP2C19*2 and CYP2C19*3 alleles account for 85% of reduced function alleles in whites and 99% in Asians. Other alleles associated with reduced metabolism include CYP2C19*4, *5, *6, *7, and *8, but these are less frequent in the general population. Published frequencies for the common CYP2C19 phenotypes and genotypes are listed in the table below.

Special populations

CYP2C19 Phenotype and Genotype Frequency

 

 

Frequency (%)

 

 

White (n=1356)

Black (n=966)

Chinese (n=573)

 

 

 

 

 

Extensive metabolism: CYP2C19*1/*1

 

Intermediate metabolism: CYP2C19*1/*2 or *1/*3

 

 

 

Poor metabolism: CYP2C19*2/*2, *2/*3 or *3/*3

authorised

 

To date, the impact of CYP2C19 genotype on the pharmacokinetics of the active metabolite of clopidogrel has been evaluated in 227 subjects from 7 reported studies. Reduced CYP2C19 metabolism in intermediate and poor metabolisers decreased the Cmax and AUC of the active metabolite by 30-50% following 300- or 600-mg loading doses and 75-mg maintenance doses. Lower active metabolite exposure results in less platelet inhibition or higher residual platelet reactivity. To date, diminished antiplatelet responses to clopidogrel have been described for intermediate and poor metabolisers in 21 reported studies involving 4,520 subjects. The relative difference in antiplatelet response between genotype groups varies across studies depending on the method used to evaluate

response, but is typically greater than 30%.

longer

 

The association between CYP2C19 genotype and clopidogrel treatment outcome was evaluated in 2 post hoc clinical trial analyses (substudies of CLARITY [n=465] and TRITON-TIMI 38 [n=1,477])

and 5 cohort studies (total n=6,489). In CLARITY and one of the cohort studies (n=765; Trenk), cardiovascular event rates did not differ significantly by genotype. In TRITON-TIMI 38 and 3 of the cohort studies (n= 3,516; Collet, Sibbing, Giusti), patients with an impaired metaboliser status (intermediate and poor combined) had a highernorate of cardiovascular events (death, myocardial

infarction, and stroke) or stent thrombosis compared to extensive metabolisers. In the fifth cohort study (n=2,208; Simon), the increased event rate was observed only in poor metabolisers.

Pharmacogenetic testingproductcan identify genotypes associated with variability in CYP2C19 activity.

There may be genetic variants of other CYP450 enzymes with effects on the ability to form the active metabolite of clopidogrel.

MedicinalThe pharmacokinetics of the active metabolite of clopidogrel is not known in these special populations.

Renal impairment

After repeated doses of 75 mg clopidogrel per day in subjects with severe renal disease (creatinine clearance from 5 to 15 ml/min), inhibition of ADP-induced platelet aggregation was lower (25%) than that observed in healthy subjects, however, the prolongation of bleeding time was similar to that seen in healthy subjects receiving 75 mg of clopidogrel per day. In addition, clinical tolerance was good in all patients.

Hepatic impairment

After repeated doses of 75 mg clopidogrel per day for 10 days in patients with severe hepatic impairment, inhibition of ADP-induced platelet aggregation was similar to that observed in healthy subjects. The mean bleeding time prolongation was also similar in the two groups.

Race

The prevalence of CYP2C19 alleles that result in intermediate and poor CYP2C19 metabolism differs according to race/ethnicity (see Pharmacogenetics). From literature, limited data in Asian populations are available to assess the clinical implication of genotyping of this CYP on clinical outcome events.

5.3 Preclinical safety data

During non clinical studies in rat and baboon, the most frequently observed effects were liver changes. These occurred at doses representing at least 25 times the exposure seen in humans receiving the clinical dose of 75 mg/day and were a consequence of an effect on hepatic metabolising enzymes. No effect on hepatic metabolising enzymes was observed in humans receiving clopidogrel at the therapeutic dose.

At very high doses, a poor gastric tolerability (gastritis, gastric erosions and/or vomiting) of

clopidogrel was also reported in rat and baboon.

authorised

 

There was no evidence of carcinogenic effect when clopidogrel was administered for 78 weeks to mice and 104 weeks to rats when given at doses up to 77 mg/kg per day (representing at least 25 times the exposure seen in humans receiving the clinical dose of 75 mg/day).

Clopidogrel has been tested in a range of in vitro and in vivo genotoxicity studies, and showed no genotoxic activity.

Clopidogrel was found to have no effect on the fertility of male and female rats and was not teratogenic in either rats or rabbits. When given to lactating rats, clopidogrel caused a slight delay in

the development of the offspring. Specific pharmacokinetic studies performed with radiolabelled clopidogrel have shown that the parent compound or itslongermetabolites are excreted in the milk. Consequently, a direct effect (slight toxicity), or an indirect effect (low palatability) cannot be

excluded.

6. PHARMACEUTICAL PARTICULARS

6.1

List of excipients

no

 

Core:

 

 

product

 

 

 

Mannitol (E421)

 

 

 

Macrogol 6000

 

 

 

Microcrystalline cellulose

 

 

 

Hydrogenated castor oil

 

 

 

Low substituted hydroxypropylcellulose

Coating:

Hypromellose (E464)

 

 

 

 

Medicinal

 

 

 

 

Lactose

 

 

 

 

Triacetin (E1518)

 

 

 

Titanium dioxide (E171)

 

 

 

Red iron oxide (E172)

 

Polishing agent:

 

 

 

 

Carnauba wax

 

6.2

Incompatibilities

 

Not applicable

 

 

6.3Shelf-life

3 years

6.4Special precautions for storage

This medicinal product does not require any special storage conditions.
6.5 Nature and content of container
Aluminium perforated unit-dose blisters in cardboard cartons containing 4x1, 30x1 and 100x1 film-coated tablets.
Not all pack sizes may be marketed.

6.6 Special precautions for disposal

Any unused product or waste material should be disposed of in accordance with local requirements.

EU/1/08/464/015 - Cartons of 4x1 film-coated tablets in all aluminium perforated unit-dose blisters EU/1/08/464/016 - Cartons of 30x1 film-coated tablets in all aluminium perforated unit-dose blisters

7.

MARKETING AUTHORISATION HOLDER

authorised

Bristol Myers Squibb Pharma EEIG

 

Uxbridge Business Park

 

Sanderson Road

 

Uxbridge UB8 1DH

 

United Kingdom

 

 

 

 

8.

MARKETING AUTHORISATION NUMBERS

 

 

 

longer

 

 

no

EU/1/08/464/017 - Cartons of 100x1 film-coated tablets in all aluminium perforated unit-dose blisters

product

 

9. DATE OF FIRST AUTHORISATION/RENEWAL OF THE AUTHORISATION

Date of first authorisation: 16 July 2008

10. DATE OF REVISION OF THE TEXT

Detailed information on this product is available on the website of the European Medicines Agency Medicinal(EMEA): http://www.emea.europa.eu/

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