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HBVaxPro (hepatitis B, recombinant surface antigen) – Summary of product characteristics - J07BC01

Updated on site: 07-Oct-2017

Medication nameHBVaxPro
ATC CodeJ07BC01
Substancehepatitis B, recombinant surface antigen
ManufacturerMSD VACCINS

1.NAME OF THE MEDICINAL PRODUCT

HBVAXPRO 5 micrograms, suspension for injection

Hepatitis B vaccine (rDNA)

2.QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE COMPOSITION

One dose (0.5 ml) contains:

 

Hepatitis B virus surface antigen, recombinant (HBsAg) * ...................

5 micrograms

Adsorbed on amorphous aluminium hydroxyphosphate sulfate (0.25 milligram Al+)

* produced in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (strain 2150-2-3) yeast by recombinant DNA technology.

This vaccine may contain traces of formaldehyde and potassium thiocyanate, which are used during the manufacturing process. See sections 4.3, 4.4 and 4.8.

For the full list of excipients, see section 6.1

3.PHARMACEUTICAL FORM

Suspension for injection

Slightly opaque white suspension.

4.CLINICAL PARTICULARS

4.1Therapeutic indications

HBVAXPRO is indicated for active immunisation against hepatitis B virus infection caused by all known subtypes in individuals from birth through 15 years of age considered at risk of exposure to hepatitis B virus.

The specific at risk categories to be immunised are to be determined on the basis of the official recommendations.

It can be expected that hepatitis D will also be prevented by immunisation with HBVAXPRO as hepatitis D (caused by the delta agent) does not occur in the absence of hepatitis B infection.

4.2 Posology and method of administration

Posology

Individuals from birth through 15 years of age: 1 dose (0.5 ml) at each injection:

Primary vaccination:

A course of vaccination should include at least three injections.

Two primary immunisation schedules can be recommended:

0, 1, 6 months: two injections with an interval of one month; a third injection 6 months after the first administration.

0, 1, 2, 12 months: three injections with an interval of one month; a fourth dose should be administered at 12 months.

It is recommended that the vaccine be administered in the schedules indicated. Infants receiving the compressed regimen (0, 1, 2 months dosing schedule) must receive the 12 month booster to induce higher antibody titres.

Booster:

Immunocompetent vaccinees

The need for a booster dose in healthy individuals who have received a full primary vaccination course has not been established. However, some local vaccination schedules currently include a recommendation for a booster dose and these should be respected.

Immunocompromised vaccinees (e.g. dialysis patients, transplant patients, AIDS Patients)

In vaccinees with an impaired immune system, administration of additional doses of vaccine should be considered if the antibody level against hepatitis B virus surface antigen (anti-HBsAg) is less than 10 IU/l.

Revaccination of nonresponders

When persons who do not respond to the primary vaccine series are revaccinated, 15-25 % produce an adequate antibody response after one additional dose and 30-50 % after three additional doses. However, because data are insufficient concerning the safety of hepatitis B vaccine when additional doses in excess of the recommended series are administered, revaccination following completion of the primary series is not routinely recommended. Revaccination should be considered for high-risk individuals, after weighing the benefits of vaccination against the potential risk of experiencing increased local or systemic adverse reactions.

Special dosage recommendations:

Dosage recommendation for neonates of mothers who are hepatitis B virus carriers

-At birth, one dose of hepatitis B immunoglobulin (within 24 hours).

-The first dose of the vaccine should be given within 7 days of birth and can be administered simultaneously with hepatitis B immunoglobulin but at a separate injection site.

-Subsequent doses of vaccine should be given according to the locally recommended vaccination schedule.

Dosage recommendation for known or presumed exposure to hepatitis B virus (e.g needlestick with contaminated needle)

-Hepatitis B immunoglobulin should be given as soon as possible after exposure (within 24 hours).

-The first dose of the vaccine should be given within 7 days of exposure and can be administered simultaneously with hepatitis B immunoglobulin but at a separate injection site.

-Serologic testing is also recommended, with the administration of subsequent doses of vaccine, if necessary, (i.e according to the serologic status of the patient) for short and long term protection.

-In the case of unvaccinated or incompletely vaccinated individuals, additional doses should be given as in the recommended immunisation schedule. The accelerated schedule including the 12 month booster dose can be proposed.

Method of administration

This vaccine should be administered intramuscularly.

The anterolateral thigh is the preferred site for injection in neonates and infants. The deltoid muscle is the preferred site for injection in children and adolescents.

Do not inject intravascularly.

Exceptionally, the vaccine may be administered subcutaneously in patients with thrombocytopoenia or bleeding disorders.

Precautions to be taken before handling or administering the product: see section 6.6.

4.3

Contraindications

-

History of hypersensitivity to the active substance, or to any of the excipients, or trace residuals

 

(e.g. formaldehyde and potassium thiocyanate), see sections 6.1 and 2.

-

Vaccination should be postponed in individuals with a severe febrile illness or acute infection.

4.4

Special warnings and precautions for use

As with all injectable vaccines, appropriate medical treatment should always be readily available in case of rare anaphylactic reactions following the administration of the vaccine (see section 4.8).

This vaccine may contain traces of formaldehyde and potassium thiocyanate, which are used during the manufacturing process. Therefore, hypersensitivity reactions may occur (see sections 2 and 4.8).

Use caution when vaccinating latex-sensitive individuals since the vial stopper contains dry natural latex rubber that may cause allergic reactions.

For clinical or laboratory monitoring regarding immunocompromised individuals or individuals with known or presumed exposure to hepatitis B virus, see section 4.2

The potential risk of apnoea and the need for respiratory monitoring for 48 to 72 hours should be considered when administering the primary immunisation series to very premature infants (born

≤ 28 weeks of gestation) and particularly for those with a previous history of respiratory immaturity (see section 4.8). As the benefit of vaccination is high in this group of infants, vaccination should not be withheld or delayed.

Because of the long incubation period of hepatitis B, it is possible for unrecognised hepatitis B infection to be present at the time of vaccination. The vaccine may not prevent hepatitis B infection in such cases.

The vaccine will not prevent infection caused by other agents such as hepatitis A, hepatitis C and hepatitis E and other pathogens known to infect the liver.

Caution should be exercised when prescribing to pregnant or breast-feeding women. (see section 4.6).

4.5Interaction with other medicinal products and other forms of interaction

This vaccine can be administered:

-with hepatitis B immunoglobulin, at a separate injection site.

-to complete a primary immunisation course or as a booster dose in subjects who have previously received another hepatitis B vaccine.

-concomitantly with other vaccines, using separate sites and syringes.

The concomitant administration of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PREVENAR) given with hepatitis B vaccine using the 0, 1 and 6 and 0, 1, 2 and 12 month schedules has not been sufficiently studied.

4.6Fertility, pregnancy and lactation

Fertility:

HBVAXPRO has not been evaluated in fertility studies.

Pregnancy:

There is no clinical data on the use of HBVAXPRO on pregnant women.

The vaccine should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the foetus.

Breast-feeding:

There is no clinical data on the use of HBVAXPRO on breast-feeding women.

4.7Effects on ability to drive and use machines

No studies on the effects on the ability to drive and use machines have been performed. However, HBVAXPRO is expected to have no or negligible influence on the ability to drive and use machines.

4.8Undesirable effects

a. Summary of the safety profile

The most common side effects seen are injection-site reactions: transient soreness, erythema, induration.

b. Tabulated summary of adverse reactions

The following undesirable effects have been reported following the widespread use of the vaccine.

As with other hepatitis B vaccines, in many instances, the causal relationship to the vaccine has not been established.

 

Adverse reactions

Frequency

 

General disorders and administration site conditions

 

 

Local reactions (injection site): Transient soreness, Erythema, Induration

Common

 

(≥1/100 to, <1/10)

 

 

 

Fatigue, Fever, Malaise, Influenza-like symptoms

Very rare (<1/10,000)

 

Blood and the lymphatic system disorders

 

 

Thrombocytopenia, Lymphadenopathy

Very rare (<1/10,000)

 

Immune system disorders

 

 

Serum sickness, Anaphylaxis, Polyarteritis nodosa

Very rare (<1/10,000)

 

Nervous system disorders

 

 

Paresthesia, Paralysis (including Bell's palsy, facial paralysis), Peripheral

 

 

neuropathies (polyradiculoneuritis, Guillain Barre Syndrome), Neuritis

 

 

(including optical neuritis), Myelitis (including transverse Myelitis),

Very rare (<1/10,000)

 

Encephalitis, Demyelinating disease of the central nervous system, Exacerbation

 

 

of multiple sclerosis, Multiple sclerosis, Seizure, Headache, Dizziness, Syncope

 

 

Eye Disorders

 

 

Uveitis

Very rare (<1/10,000)

 

Vascular disorders

 

 

Hypotension, Vasculitis

Very rare (<1/10,000)

 

Respiratory, thoracic and mediastinal disorders

 

 

Bronchospasm-like symptoms

Very rare (<1/10,000)

 

Gastrointestinal disorders

 

 

Vomiting, Nausea, Diarrhoea, Abdominal pain

Very rare (<1/10,000)

 

Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders

 

 

Rash, Alopecia, Pruritus, Urticaria, Erythema multiforme, Angioedema, Eczema

Very rare (<1/10,000)

 

Musculoskeletal, connective tissue and bone disorders

 

 

Arthralgia, Arthritis, Myalgia, Pain in extremity

Very rare (<1/10,000)

 

Investigations

 

 

Elevation of liver enzymes

Very rare (<1/10,000)

c. Other special population

Apnoea in very premature infants (born ≤ 28 weeks of gestation) (see section 4.4)

Reporting of suspected adverse reactions

Reporting suspected adverse reactions after authorisation of the medicinal product is important. It allows continued monitoring of the benefit/risk balance of the medicinal product. Healthcare professionals are asked to report any suspected adverse reactions via the national reporting system listed in Appendix V.

4.9Overdose

There have been reports of administration of higher than recommended doses of HBVAXPRO.

In general, the adverse event profile reported with overdose was comparable to that observed with the recommended dose of HBVAXPRO.

5.PHARMACOLOGICAL PROPERTIES

5.1Pharmacodynamic properties

Pharmacotherapeutic group: anti-infectious, ATC code: J07BC01

The vaccine induces specific humoral antibodies against hepatitis B virus surface antigen (anti-HBsAg). Development of an antibody titre against hepatitis B virus surface antigen (anti-HBsAg) equal to or greater than 10 IU/l measured 1 to 2 months after the last injection correlates with protection to hepatitis B virus infection.

In clinical trials, 96 % of 1,497 healthy infants, children, adolescents and adults given a 3 dose course of a previous formulation of Merck’s recombinant hepatitis B vaccine developed a protective level of antibodies against hepatitis B virus surface antigen ( 10 IU/l). In two infant trials using different dosing schedules and concomitant vaccines, the proportion of infants with protective levels of antibodies were 97.5 % and 97.2 % with geometric mean titres of 214 and 297 IU/l, respectively.

The protective efficacy of a dose of hepatitis B immunoglobulin at birth followed by 3 doses of a previous formulation of Merck’s recombinant hepatitis B vaccine has been demonstrated for neonates born to mothers positive for both hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) and hepatitis B virus e antigen (HBeAg). Among 130 vaccinated infants, the estimated efficacy in prevention of chronic hepatitis B infection was 95 % as compared to the infection rate in untreated historical controls.

Although the duration of the protective effect of a previous formulation of Merck’s recombinant hepatitis B vaccine in healthy vaccinees is unknown, follow-up over 5-9 years of approximately 3,000 high-risk subjects given a similar plasma-derived vaccine has revealed no cases of clinically apparent hepatitis B infection.

In addition, persistence of vaccine-induced immunologic memory for hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) has been demonstrated through an anamnestic antibody response to a booster dose of a previous formulation of Merck’s recombinant hepatitis B vaccine. As with other hepatitis B vaccines, the duration of the protective effect in healthy vaccinees is unknown at present. The need for a booster dose of HBVAXPRO is not yet defined beyond the 12 month booster dose required for the 0, 1, 2 compressed schedule.

Reduced risk of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

Hepatocellular carcinoma is a serious complication of hepatitis B virus infection. Studies have demonstrated the link between chronic hepatitis B infection and hepatocellular carcinoma and 80 % of hepatocellular carcinomas are caused by hepatitis B virus infection. Hepatitis B vaccine has been recognized as the first anti-cancer vaccine because it can prevent primary liver cancer.

5.2Pharmacokinetic properties

Not applicable.

5.3Preclinical safety data

Animal reproduction studies have not been conducted.

6.PHARMACEUTICAL PARTICULARS

6.1List of excipients

Sodium chloride

Borax

Water for injections

6.2Incompatibilities

In the absence of compatibility studies, this medicinal product must not be mixed with other medicinal products.

6.3Shelf life

3 years.

6.4Special precautions for storage

Store in a refrigerator (2 °C – 8 °C).

Do not freeze.

6.5Nature and contents of container

0.5 ml of suspension in vial (glass) with stopper (gray butyl rubber) and aluminum seals with plastic flip caps. Pack size of 1, 10.

0.5 ml of suspension in vial (glass) with stopper (gray butyl rubber) and aluminum seals with plastic flip caps with an empty sterile injection syringe with needle. Pack size of 1.

Not all pack sizes may be marketed.

6.6Special precautions for disposal and other handling

The vaccine should be inspected visually in order to detect any appearance of precipitate or discolouring of the content prior to administration. If these conditions exist, the product should not be administered. Before use, the vial should be well shaken.

Once the vial has been penetrated, the withdrawn vaccine should be used promptly, and the vial must be discarded.

Any unused medicinal product or waste material should be disposed of in accordance with local requirements.

7.MARKETING AUTHORISATION HOLDER

MSD VACCINS

162 avenue Jean Jaurès

69007 Lyon France

8.MARKETING AUTHORISATION NUMBER(S)

EU/1/01/183/001

EU/1/01/183/018

EU/1/01/183/019

9.DATE OF FIRST AUTHORISATION/RENEWAL OF THE AUTHORISATION

Date of first authorisation: 27/04/2001

Date of last renewal: 27/04/2011

10.DATE OF REVISION OF THE TEXT

Detailed information on this product is available on the website of the European Medicines Agency: http://www.ema.europa.eu

1. NAME OF THE MEDICINAL PRODUCT

HBVAXPRO 5 micrograms, suspension for injection in pre-filled syringe

Hepatitis B vaccine (rDNA)

2. QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE COMPOSITION

One dose (0.5 ml) contains:

 

Hepatitis B virus surface antigen, recombinant (HBsAg) * ...................

5 micrograms

Adsorbed on amorphous aluminium hydroxyphosphate sulfate (0.25 milligram Al+)

* produced in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (strain 2150-2-3) yeast by recombinant DNA technology.

This vaccine may contain traces of formaldehyde and potassium thiocyanate, which are used during the manufacturing process. See section 4.3, 4.4 and 4.8.

For the full list of excipients, see section 6.1

3. PHARMACEUTICAL FORM

Suspension for injection in pre-filled syringe

Slightly opaque white suspension.

4. CLINICAL PARTICULARS

4.1 Therapeutic indications

HBVAXPRO is indicated for active immunisation against hepatitis B virus infection caused by all known subtypes in individuals from birth through 15 years of age considered at risk of exposure to hepatitis B virus.

The specific at risk categories to be immunised are to be determined on the basis of the official recommendations.

It can be expected that hepatitis D will also be prevented by immunisation with HBVAXPRO as hepatitis D (caused by the delta agent) does not occur in the absence of hepatitis B infection.

4.2 Posology and method of administration

Posology

Individuals from birth through 15 years of age: 1 dose (0.5 ml) at each injection.

Primary vaccination:

A course of vaccination should include at least three injections.

Two primary immunisation schedules can be recommended:

0, 1, 6 months: two injections with an interval of one month; a third injection 6 months after the first administration.

0, 1, 2, 12 months: three injections with an interval of one month; a fourth dose should be administered at 12 months.

It is recommended that the vaccine be administered in the schedules indicated. Infants receiving the compressed regimen (0, 1, 2 months dosing schedule) must receive the 12 month booster to induce higher antibody titres.

Booster:

Immunocompetent vaccinees

The need for a booster dose in healthy individuals who have received a full primary vaccination course has not been established. However, some local vaccination schedules currently include a recommendation for a booster dose and these should be respected.

Immunocompromised vaccinees (e.g. dialysis patients, transplant patients, AIDS Patients)

In vaccinees with an impaired immune system, administration of additional doses of vaccine should be considered if the antibody level against hepatitis B virus surface antigen (anti-HBsAg) is less than 10 IU/l.

Revaccination of nonresponders

When persons who do not respond to the primary vaccine series are revaccinated, 15-25 % produce an adequate antibody response after one additional dose and 30-50 % after three additional doses. However, because data are insufficient concerning the safety of hepatitis B vaccine when additional doses in excess of the recommended series are administered, revaccination following completion of the primary series is not routinely recommended. Revaccination should be considered for high-risk individuals, after weighing the benefits of vaccination against the potential risk of experiencing increased local or systemic adverse reactions.

Special dosage recommendations:

Dosage recommendations for neonates born to mothers who are hepatitis B virus carriers

-At birth, one dose of hepatitis B immunoglobulin (within 24 hours).

-The first dose of the vaccine should be given within 7 days of birth and can be administered simultaneously with hepatitis B immunoglobulin at birth, but at a separate injection site.

-Subsequent doses of vaccine should be given according to the locally recommended vaccination schedule.

Dosage recommendation for known or presumed exposure to hepatitis B virus (e.g needlestick with contaminated needle)

-Hepatitis B immunoglobulin should be given as soon as possible after exposure (within 24 hours).

-The first dose of the vaccine should be given within 7 days of exposure and can be administered simultaneously with hepatitis B immunoglobulin but at a separate injection site.

-Serologic testing is also recommended, with the administration of subsequent doses of vaccine, if necessary, (i.e according to the serologic status of the patient) for short and long term protection.

-In the case of unvaccinated or incompletely vaccinated individuals, additional doses should be given as in the recommended immunisation schedule. The accelerated schedule including the 12 month booster dose can be proposed.

Method of administration

This vaccine should be administered intramuscularly.

The anterolateral thigh is the preferred site for injection in neonates and infants. The deltoid muscle is the preferred site for injection in children and adolescents.

Do not inject intravascularly.

Exceptionally, the vaccine may be administered subcutaneously in patients with thrombocytopoenia or bleeding disorders.

Precautions to be taken before handling or administering the product: see section 6.6.

4.3

Contraindications

-

History of hypersensitivity to the active substance, or to any of the excipients, or trace residuals

 

(e.g. formaldehyde and potassium thiocyanate), see sections 6.1 and 2.

-

Vaccination should be postponed in individuals with a severe febrile illness or acute infection.

4.4

Special warnings and precautions for use

As with all injectable vaccines, appropriate medical treatment should always be readily available in case of rare anaphylactic reactions following the administration of the vaccine (see section 4.8).

This vaccine may contain traces of formaldehyde and potassium thiocyanate which are used during the manufacturing process. Therefore, hypersensitivity reactions may occur (see sections 2 and 4.8).

Use caution when vaccinating latex-sensitive individuals since the syringe plunger stopper and tip cap contain dry natural latex rubber that may cause allergic reactions.

For clinical or laboratory monitoring regarding immunocompromised individuals or individuals with known or presumed exposure to hepatitis B virus, see section 4.2.

The potential risk of apnoea and the need for respiratory monitoring for 48 to 72 hours should be considered when administering the primary immunisation series to very premature infants (born

≤ 28 weeks of gestation) and particularly for those with a previous history of respiratory immaturity (see section 4.8). As the benefit of vaccination is high in this group of infants, vaccination should not be withheld or delayed.

Because of the long incubation period of hepatitis B, it is possible for unrecognised hepatitis B infection to be present at the time of vaccination. The vaccine may not prevent hepatitis B infection in such cases.

The vaccine will not prevent infection caused by other agents such as hepatitis A, hepatitis C and hepatitis E and other pathogens known to infect the liver.

Caution should be exercised when prescribing to pregnant or breast-feeding women. (see section 4.6).

4.5 Interaction with other medicinal products and other forms of interaction

This vaccine can be administered:

-with hepatitis B immunoglobulin, at a separate injection site.

-to complete a primary immunisation course or as a booster dose in subjects who have previously received another hepatitis B vaccine.

-concomitantly with other vaccines, using separate sites and syringes.

The concomitant administration of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PREVENAR) given with hepatitis B vaccine using the 0, 1 and 6 and 0, 1, 2 and 12 month schedules has not been sufficiently studied.

4.6 Fertility, pregnancy and lactation

Fertility:

HBVAXPRO has not been evaluated in fertility studies.

Pregnancy:

There is no clinical data on the use of HBVAXPRO on pregnant women.

The vaccine should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the foetus.

Breast-feeding:

There is no clinical data on the use of HBVAXPRO on breast-feeding women.

4.7 Effects on ability to drive and use machines

No studies on the effects on the ability to drive and use machines have been performed. However, HBVAXPRO is expected to have no or negligible influence on the ability to drive and use machines.

4.8 Undesirable effects

a. Summary of the safety profile

The most common side effects seen are injection-site reactions: transient soreness, erythema, induration.

b. Tabulated summary of adverse reactions

The following undesirable effects have been reported following the widespread use of the vaccine.

As with other hepatitis B vaccines, in many instances, the causal relationship to the vaccine has not been established.

 

Adverse reactions

Frequency

 

General disorders and administration site conditions

 

 

Local reactions (injection site): Transient soreness, Erythema, Induration

Common

 

(≥1/100 to, <1/10)

 

 

 

Fatigue, Fever, Malaise, Influenza-like symptoms

Very rare (<1/10,000)

 

Blood and the lymphatic system disorders

 

 

Thrombocytopenia, Lymphadenopathy

Very rare (<1/10,000)

 

Immune system disorders

 

 

Serum sickness, Anaphylaxis, Polyarteritis nodosa

Very rare (<1/10,000)

 

Nervous system disorders

 

 

Paresthesia, Paralysis (including Bell's palsy, facial paralysis), Peripheral

 

 

neuropathies (polyradiculoneuritis, Guillain Barre Syndrome), Neuritis

 

 

(including optical neuritis), Myelitis (including transverse Myelitis),

Very rare (<1/10,000)

 

Encephalitis, Demyelinating disease of the central nervous system,

 

 

 

Exacerbation of multiple sclerosis, Multiple sclerosis, Seizure, Headache,

 

 

Dizziness, Syncope

 

 

Eye disorders

 

 

Uveitis

Very rare (<1/10,000)

 

Vascular disorders

 

 

Hypotension, Vasculitis

Very rare (<1/10,000)

 

Respiratory, thoracic and mediastinal disorders

 

 

Bronchospasm-like symptoms

Very rare (<1/10,000)

 

Gastrointestinal disorders

 

 

Vomiting, Nausea, Diarrhoea, Abdominal pain

Very rare (<1/10,000)

 

Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders

 

 

Rash, Alopecia, Pruritus, Urticaria, Erythema multiforme, Angioedema,

Very rare (<1/10,000)

 

Eczema

 

 

 

Musculoskeletal, connective tissue and bone disorders

 

 

Arthralgia, Arthritis, Myalgia, Pain in extremity

Very rare (<1/10,000)

 

Investigations

 

 

Elevation of liver enzymes

Very rare (<1/10,000)

c. Other special population

Apnoea in very premature infants (born ≤ 28 weeks of gestation) (see section 4.4)

Reporting of suspected adverse reactions

Reporting suspected adverse reactions after authorisation of the medicinal product is important. It allows continued monitoring of the benefit/risk balance of the medicinal product. Healthcare professionals are asked to report any suspected adverse reactions via the national reporting system listed in Appendix V.

4.9 Overdose

There have been reports of administration of higher than recommended doses of HBVAXPRO.

In general, the adverse event profile reported with overdose was comparable to that observed with the recommended dose of HBVAXPRO.

5. PHARMACOLOGICAL PROPERTIES

5.1 Pharmacodynamic properties

Pharmacotherapeutic group: anti-infectious, ATC code: J07BC01

The vaccine induces specific humoral antibodies against hepatitis B virus surface antigen (anti-HBsAg). Development of an antibody titre against hepatitis B virus surface antigen (anti-HBsAg) equal to or greater than 10 IU/l measured 1 to 2 months after the last injection correlates with protection to hepatitis B virus infection.

In clinical trials, 96 % of 1,497 healthy infants, children, adolescents and adults given a 3 dose course of a previous formulation of Merck’s recombinant hepatitis B vaccine developed a protective level of antibodies against hepatitis B virus surface antigen ( 10 IU/l). In two infant trials using different dosing schedules and concomitant vaccines, the proportion of infants with protective levels of antibodies were 97.5 % and 97.2 % with geometric mean titres of 214 and 297 IU/l, respectively.

The protective efficacy of a dose of hepatitis B immunoglobulin at birth followed by 3 doses of a previous formulation of Merck’s recombinant hepatitis B vaccine has been demonstrated for neonates born to mothers positive for both hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) and hepatitis B virus e antigen (HBeAg). Among 130 vaccinated infants, the estimated efficacy in prevention of chronic hepatitis B infection was 95 % as compared to the infection rate in untreated historical controls.

Although the duration of the protective effect of a previous formulation of Merck’s recombinant hepatitis B vaccine in healthy vaccinees is unknown, follow-up over 5-9 years of approximately 3,000 high-risk subjects given a similar plasma-derived vaccine has revealed no cases of clinically apparent hepatitis B infection.

In addition, persistence of vaccine-induced immunologic memory for hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) has been demonstrated through an anamnestic antibody response to a booster dose of a previous formulation of Merck’s recombinant hepatitis B vaccine. As with other hepatitis B vaccines, the duration of the protective effect in healthy vaccinees is unknown at present. The need for a booster dose of HBVAXPRO is not yet defined beyond the 12 month booster dose required for the 0, 1, 2 compressed schedule.

Reduced risk of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

Hepatocellular carcinoma is a serious complication of hepatitis B virus infection. Studies have demonstrated the link between chronic hepatitis B infection and hepatocellular carcinoma and 80 % of hepatocellular carcinomas are caused by hepatitis B virus infection. Hepatitis B vaccine has been recognized as the first anti-cancer vaccine because it can prevent primary liver cancer.

5.2 Pharmacokinetic properties

Not applicable.

5.3 Preclinical safety data

Animal reproduction studies have not been conducted.

6. PHARMACEUTICAL PARTICULARS

6.1 List of excipients

Sodium chloride

Borax

Water for injections

6.2 Incompatibilities

In the absence of compatibility studies, this medicinal product must not be mixed with other medicinal products.

6.3 Shelf life

3 years.

6.4 Special precautions for storage

Store in a refrigerator (2 °C – 8 °C).

Do not freeze.

6.5 Nature and contents of container

0.5 ml of suspension in pre-filled syringe (glass) without needle with a plunger stopper (gray chlorobutyl). Pack size of 1, 10, 20, 50.

0.5 ml of suspension in pre-filled syringe (glass) with 1 separate needle with a plunger stopper (gray chlorobutyl). Pack size of 1, 10.

0.5 ml of suspension in pre-filled syringe (glass) with 2 separate needles with a plunger stopper (gray chlorobutyl). Pack size of 1, 10, 20, 50.

Not all pack sizes may be marketed.

6.6 Special precautions for disposal and other handling

The vaccine should be inspected visually in order to detect any appearance of precipitate or discolouring of the content prior to administration. If these conditions exist, the product should not be administered. Before use, the syringe should be well shaken.

Hold the syringe barrel and attach the needle by twisting in clockwise direction, until the needle fits securely on the syringe.

Any unused medicinal product or waste material should be disposed of in accordance with local requirements.

7. MARKETING AUTHORISATION HOLDER

MSD VACCINS

162 avenue Jean Jaurès

69007 Lyon France

8. MARKETING AUTHORISATION NUMBER(S)

EU/1/01/183/004

EU/1/01/183/005

EU/1/01/183/020

EU/1/01/183/021

EU/1/01/183/022

EU/1/01/183/023

EU/1/01/183/024

EU/1/01/183/025

EU/1/01/183/030

EU/1/01/183/031

9. DATE OF FIRST AUTHORISATION/RENEWAL OF THE AUTHORISATION

Date of first authorisation: 27/04/2001

Date of last renewal: 27/04/2011

10. DATE OF REVISION OF THE TEXT

Detailed information on this product is available on the website of the European Medicines Agency http://www.ema.europa.eu

1. NAME OF THE MEDICINAL PRODUCT

HBVAXPRO 10 micrograms, suspension for injection

Hepatitis B vaccine (rDNA)

2. QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE COMPOSITION

One dose (1 ml) contains:

 

Hepatitis B virus surface antigen, recombinant (HBsAg) * ...................

10 micrograms

Adsorbed on amorphous aluminium hydroxyphosphate sulfate (0.50 milligram Al+)

* produced in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (strain 2150-2-3) yeast by recombinant DNA technology.

This vaccine may contain traces of formaldehyde and potassium thiocyanate which are used during the manufacturing process. See sections 4.3, 4.4 and 4.8.

For the full list of excipients, see section 6.1.

3. PHARMACEUTICAL FORM

Suspension for injection

Slightly opaque white suspension.

4. CLINICAL PARTICULARS

4.1 Therapeutic indications

HBVAXPRO is indicated for active immunisation against hepatitis B virus infection caused by all known subtypes in individuals 16 years of age or more considered at risk of exposure to hepatitis B virus.

The specific at risk categories to be immunised are to be determined on the basis of the official recommendations.

It can be expected that hepatitis D will also be prevented by immunisation with HBVAXPRO as hepatitis D (caused by the delta agent) does not occur in the absence of hepatitis B infection.

4.2 Posology and method of administration

Posology

Individuals 16 years of age or more: 1 dose (1 ml) at each injection.

Primary vaccination:

A course of vaccination should include at least three injections.

Two primary immunisation schedules can be recommended:

0, 1, 6 months: two injections with an interval of one month; a third injection 6 months after the first administration.

0, 1, 2, 12 months: three injections with an interval of one month; a fourth dose should be administered at 12 months.

It is recommended that the vaccine be administered in the schedules indicated. Those receiving the compressed regimen (0, 1, 2 months dosing schedule) must receive the 12 month booster to induce higher antibody titres.

Booster:

Immunocompetent vaccinees

The need for a booster dose in healthy individuals who have received a full primary vaccination course has not been established. However, some local vaccination schedules currently include a recommendation for a booster dose and these should be respected.

Immunocompromised vaccinees (e.g. dialysis patients, transplant patients, AIDS Patients)

In vaccinees with an impaired immune system, administration of additional doses of vaccine should be considered if the antibody level against hepatitis B virus surface antigen (anti-HBsAg) is less than 10 IU/l.

Revaccination of nonresponders

When persons who do not respond to the primary vaccine series are revaccinated, 15-25 % produce an adequate antibody response after one additional dose and 30-50 % after three additional doses. However, because data are insufficient concerning the safety of hepatitis B vaccine when additional doses in excess of the recommended series are administered, revaccination following completion of the primary series is not routinely recommended. Revaccination should be considered for high-risk individuals, after weighing the benefits of vaccination against the potential risk of experiencing increased local or systemic adverse reactions.

Special dosage recommendations for known or presumed exposure to hepatitis B virus (e.g needlestick with contaminated needle):

-Hepatitis B immunoglobulin should be given as soon as possible after exposure (within 24 hours).

-The first dose of the vaccine should be given within 7 days of exposure and can be administered simultaneously with hepatitis B immunoglobulin, but at a separate injection site.

-Serologic testing is also recommended, with the administration of subsequent doses of vaccine, if necessary, (i.e according to the serologic status of the patient) for short and long term protection.

-In the case of unvaccinated or incompletely vaccinated individuals, additional doses should be given as in the recommended immunisation schedule. The accelerated schedule including the 12 month booster dose can be proposed.

Individuals less than 16 years of age:

HBVAXPRO 10 micrograms is not indicated in this subset of paediatric population.

The appropriate strength for administration to individuals from birth through 15 years of age is HBVAXPRO 5 micrograms.

Method of administration

This vaccine should be administered intramuscularly.

The deltoid muscle is the preferred site for injection in adults and adolescents.

Do not inject intravascularly.

Exceptionally, the vaccine may be administered subcutaneously in patients with thrombocytopoenia or bleeding disorders.

Precautions to be taken before handling or administering the product: see section 6.6.

4.3

Contraindications

-

History of hypersensitivity to the active substance, or to any of the excipients, or trace residuals

 

(e.g. formaldehyde and potassium thiocyanate), see sections 6.1 and 2.

-

Vaccination should be postponed in individuals with a severe febrile illness or acute infection.

4.4

Special warnings and precautions for use

As with all injectable vaccines, appropriate medical treatment should always be readily available in case of rare anaphylactic reactions following the administration of the vaccine (see section 4.8).

This vaccine may contain traces of formaldehyde and potassium thiocyanate which are used during the manufacturing process. Therefore, hypersensitivity reactions may occur (see sections 2 and 4.8).

Use caution when vaccinating latex-sensitive individuals since the vial stopper contains dry natural latex rubber that may cause allergic reactions.

For clinical or laboratory monitoring regarding immunocompromised individuals or individuals with known or presumed exposure to hepatitis B virus, see section 4.2.

A number of factors have been observed to reduce the immune response to hepatitis B vaccines. These factors include older age, male gender, obesity, smoking, route of administration and some chronic underlying diseases. Consideration should be given to serological testing of those subjects who may be at risk of not achieving seroprotection following a complete course of HBVAXPRO. Additional doses may need to be considered for persons who do not respond or have a sub-optimal response to a course of vaccinations.

Because of the long incubation period of hepatitis B, it is possible for unrecognised hepatitis B infection to be present at the time of vaccination. The vaccine may not prevent hepatitis B infection in such cases.

The vaccine will not prevent infection caused by other agents such as hepatitis A, hepatitis C and hepatitis E and other pathogens known to infect the liver.

Caution should be exercised when prescribing to pregnant or breast-feeding women. (see section 4.6).

4.5 Interaction with other medicinal products and other forms of interaction

This vaccine can be administered:

-with hepatitis B immunoglobulin, at a separate injection site.

-to complete a primary immunisation course or as a booster dose in subjects who have previously received another hepatitis B vaccine.

-concomitantly with other vaccines, using separate sites and syringes.

4.6 Fertility, pregnancy and lactation

Fertility:

HBVAXPRO has not been evaluated in fertility studies.

Pregnancy:

There is no clinical data on the use of HBVAXPRO in pregnant women

The vaccine should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the foetus.

Breast-feeding:

There is no clinical data on the use of HBVAXPRO on breast-feeding women.

4.7 Effects on ability to drive and use machines

No studies on the effects on the ability to drive and use machines have been performed. However, HBVAXPRO is expected to have no or negligible influence on the ability to drive and use machines.

4.8 Undesirable effects

a. Summary of the safety profile

The most common side effects seen are injection-site reactions: transient soreness, erythema, induration.

b. Tabulated summary of adverse reactions

The following undesirable effects have been reported following the widespread use of the vaccine.

As with other hepatitis B vaccines, in many instances, the causal relationship to the vaccine has not been established.

 

Adverse reactions

Frequency

 

General disorders and administration site conditions

 

 

Local reactions (injection site): Transient soreness, Erythema, Induration

Common

 

(≥1/100 to, <1/10)

 

 

 

Fatigue, Fever, Malaise, Influenza-like symptoms

Very rare (<1/10,000)

 

Blood and the lymphatic system disorders

 

 

Thrombocytopenia, Lymphadenopathy

Very rare (<1/10,000)

 

Immune system disorders

 

 

Serum sickness, Anaphylaxis, Polyarteritis nodosa

Very rare (<1/10,000)

 

Nervous system disorders

 

 

Paresthesia, Paralysis (including Bell's palsy, facial paralysis), Peripheral

 

 

neuropathies (polyradiculoneuritis, Guillain Barre Syndrome), Neuritis

 

 

(including optical neuritis), Myelitis (including transverse Myelitis),

Very rare (<1/10,000)

 

Encephalitis, Demyelinating disease of the central nervous system,

 

 

 

Exacerbation of multiple sclerosis, Multiple sclerosis, Seizure, Headache,

 

 

Dizziness, Syncope

 

 

Eye disorders

 

 

Uveitis

Very rare (<1/10,000)

 

Vascular disorders

 

 

Hypotension, Vasculitis

Very rare (<1/10,000)

 

Respiratory, thoracic and mediastinal disorders

 

 

Bronchospasm-like symptoms

Very rare (<1/10,000)

 

Gastrointestinal disorders

 

 

Vomiting, Nausea, Diarrhoea, Abdominal pain

Very rare (<1/10,000)

 

Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders

 

 

Rash, Alopecia, Pruritus, Urticaria, Erythema multiforme, Angioedema,

Very rare (<1/10,000)

 

Eczema

 

 

 

Musculoskeletal, connective tissue and bone disorders

 

 

Arthralgia, Arthritis, Myalgia, Pain in extremity

Very rare (<1/10,000)

 

Investigations

 

 

Elevation of liver enzymes

Very rare (<1/10,000)

Reporting of suspected adverse reactions

Reporting suspected adverse reactions after authorisation of the medicinal product is important. It allows continued monitoring of the benefit/risk balance of the medicinal product. Healthcare professionals are asked to report any suspected adverse reactions via the national reporting system listed in Appendix V.

4.9 Overdose

There have been reports of administration of higher than recommended doses of HBVAXPRO.

In general, the adverse event profile reported with overdose was comparable to that observed with the recommended dose of HBVAXPRO.

5. PHARMACOLOGICAL PROPERTIES

5.1 Pharmacodynamic properties

Pharmacotherapeutic group: anti-infectious, ATC code: J07BC01

The vaccine induces specific humoral antibodies against hepatitis B virus surface antigen (anti-HBsAg). Development of an antibody titre against hepatitis B virus surface antigen (anti-HBsAg) equal to or greater than 10 IU/l measured 1 to 2 months after the last injection correlates with protection to hepatitis B virus infection.

In clinical trials, 96 % of 1,497 healthy infants, children, adolescents and adults given a 3 dose course of a previous formulation of Merck’s recombinant hepatitis B vaccine developed a protective level of antibodies against hepatitis B virus surface antigen ( 10 IU/l). In two trials conducted in older adolescents and adults, 95.6-97.5 % of vaccinees developed a protective level of antibodies, with geometric mean titres in these trials ranging from 535 – 793 IU/l.

Although the duration of the protective effect of a previous formulation of Merck’s recombinant hepatitis B vaccine in healthy vaccinees is unknown, follow-up over 5-9 years of approximately 3,000 high-risk subjects given a similar plasma-derived vaccine has revealed no cases of clinically apparent hepatitis B infection.

In addition, persistence of vaccine-induced immunologic memory for hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) has been demonstrated through an anamnestic antibody response to a booster dose of a previous formulation of Merck’s recombinant hepatitis B vaccine in healthy adults. As with other hepatitis B vaccines, the duration of the protective effect in healthy vaccinees is unknown at present. The need for a booster dose of HBVAXPRO is not yet defined beyond the 12 month booster dose required for the 0, 1, 2 compressed schedule.

Reduced risk of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

Hepatocellular carcinoma is a serious complication of hepatitis B virus infection. Studies have demonstrated the link between chronic hepatitis B infection and hepatocellular carcinoma and 80 % of hepatocellular carcinomas are caused by hepatitis B virus infection. Hepatitis B vaccine has been recognized as the first anti-cancer vaccine because it can prevent primary liver cancer.

5.2 Pharmacokinetic properties

Not applicable.

5.3 Preclinical safety data

Animal reproduction studies have not been conducted.

6. PHARMACEUTICAL PARTICULARS

6.1 List of excipients

Sodium chloride

Borax

Water for injections

6.2 Incompatibilities

In the absence of compatibility studies, this medicinal product must not be mixed with other medicinal products.

6.3 Shelf life

3 years.

6.4 Special precautions for storage

Store in a refrigerator (2 °C – 8 °C).

Do not freeze.

6.5 Nature and contents of container

1 ml of suspension in vial (glass) with stopper (gray butyl rubber) and aluminum seals with plastic flip caps. Pack size of 1, 10.

Not all pack sizes may be marketed.

6.6 Special precautions for disposal and other handling

The vaccine should be inspected visually in order to detect any appearance of precipitate or discolouring of the content prior to administration. If these conditions exist, the product should not be administered. Before use, the vial should be well shaken.

Once the vial has been penetrated, the withdrawn vaccine should be used promptly, and the vial must be discarded.

Any unused medicinal product or waste material should be disposed of in accordance with local requirements.

7. MARKETING AUTHORISATION HOLDER

MSD VACCINS

162 avenue Jean Jaurès

69007 Lyon France

8. MARKETING AUTHORISATION NUMBER(S)

EU/1/01/183/007

EU/1/01/183/008

9. DATE OF FIRST AUTHORISATION/RENEWAL OF THE AUTHORISATION

Date of first authorisation: 27/04/2001

Date of latest renewal: 27/04/2011

10. DATE OF REVISION OF THE TEXT

Detailed information on this product is available on the website of the European Medicines Agency http://www.ema.europa.eu

1. NAME OF THE MEDICINAL PRODUCT

HBVAXPRO 10 micrograms, suspension for injection in pre-filled syringe

Hepatitis B vaccine (rDNA)

2. QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE COMPOSITION

One dose (1 ml) contains:

 

Hepatitis B virus surface antigen, recombinant (HBsAg) * ...................

10 micrograms

Adsorbed on amorphous aluminium hydroxyphosphate sulfate (0.50 milligram Al+)

* produced in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (strain 2150-2-3) yeast by recombinant DNA technology.

This vaccine may contain traces of formaldehyde and potassium thiocyanate which are used during the manufacturing process. See sections 4.3, 4.4 and 4.8.

For the full list of excipients, see section 6.1.

3. PHARMACEUTICAL FORM

Suspension for injection in pre-filled syringe

Slightly opaque white suspension.

4. CLINICAL PARTICULARS

4.1 Therapeutic indications

HBVAXPRO is indicated for active immunisation against hepatitis B virus infection caused by all known subtypes in individuals 16 years of age or more considered at risk of exposure to hepatitis B virus.

The specific at risk categories to be immunised are to be determined on the basis of the official recommendations.

It can be expected that hepatitis D will also be prevented by immunisation with HBVAXPRO as hepatitis D (caused by the delta agent) does not occur in the absence of hepatitis B infection.

4.2 Posology and method of administration

Posology

Individuals 16 years of age or more: 1 dose (1 ml) at each injection.

Primary vaccination:

A course of vaccination should include at least three injections.

Two primary immunisation schedules can be recommended:

0, 1, 6 months: two injections with an interval of one month; a third injection 6 months after the first administration.

0, 1, 2, 12 months: three injections with an interval of one month; a fourth dose should be administered at 12 months.

It is recommended that the vaccine be administered in the schedules indicated. Those receiving the compressed regimen (0, 1, 2 months dosing schedule) must receive the 12 month booster to induce higher antibody titres.

Booster:

Immunocompetent vaccinees

The need for a booster dose in healthy individuals who have received a full primary vaccination course has not been established. However, some local vaccination schedules currently include a recommendation for a booster dose and these should be respected.

Immunocompromised vaccinees (e.g. dialysis patients, transplant patients, AIDS Patients)

In vaccinees with an impaired immune system, administration of additional doses of vaccine should be considered if the antibody level against hepatitis B virus surface antigen (anti-HBsAg) is less than 10 IU/l.

Revaccination of nonresponders

When persons who do not respond to the primary vaccine series are revaccinated, 15-25 % produce an adequate antibody response after one additional dose and 30-50 % after three additional doses. However, because data are insufficient concerning the safety of hepatitis B vaccine when additional doses in excess of the recommended series are administered, revaccination following completion of the primary series is not routinely recommended. Revaccination should be considered for high-risk individuals, after weighing the benefits of vaccination against the potential risk of experiencing increased local or systemic adverse reactions.

Special dosage recommendations for known or presumed exposure to hepatitis B virus (e.g. needlestick with contaminated needle):

-Hepatitis B immunoglobulin should be given as soon as possible after exposure (within 24 hours).

-The first dose of the vaccine should be given within 7 days of exposure and can be administered simultaneously with hepatitis B immunoglobulin but at a separate injection site.

-Serologic testing is also recommended, with the administration of subsequent doses of vaccine, if necessary, (i.e. according to the serologic status of the patient) for short and long term protection.

-In the case of unvaccinated or incompletely vaccinates individuals, additional doses should be given as in the recommended immunisation schedules. The accelerated schedule including the 12 month booster dose can be proposed.

Individuals less than 16 years of age:

HBVAXPRO 10 micrograms is not indicated in this subset of paediatric population.

The appropriate strength for administration to individuals from birth through 15 years of age is HBVAXPRO 5 micrograms.

Method of administration

This vaccine should be administered intramuscularly.

The deltoid muscle is the preferred site for injection in adults and adolescents.

Do not inject intravascularly.

Exceptionally, the vaccine may be administered subcutaneously in patients with thrombocytopoenia or bleeding disorders.

Precautions to be taken before handling or administering the product: see section 6.6.

4.3

Contraindications

-

History of hypersensitivity to the active substance, or to any of the excipients, or trace residuals

 

(e.g. formaldehyde and potassium thiocyanate), see sections 6.1 and 2.

-

Vaccination should be postponed in individuals with a severe febrile illness or acute infection.

4.4

Special warnings and precautions for use

As with all injectable vaccines, appropriate medical treatment should always be readily available in case of rare anaphylactic reactions following the administration of the vaccine (see section 4.8).

This vaccine may contain traces of formaldehyde and potassium thiocyanate which are used during the manufacturing process. Therefore, hypersensitivity reactions may occur (see sections 2 and 4.8).

Use caution when vaccinating latex-sensitive individuals since the syringe plunger stopper and tip cap contain dry natural latex rubber that may cause allergic reactions.

For clinical or laboratory monitoring regarding immunocompromised individuals or individuals with known or presumed exposure to hepatitis B virus, see section 4.2.

A number of factors have been observed to reduce the immune response to hepatitis B vaccines. These factors include older age, male gender, obesity, smoking, route of administration and some chronic underlying diseases. Consideration should be given to serological testing of those subjects who may be at risk of not achieving seroprotection following a complete course of HBVAXPRO. Additional doses may need to be considered for persons who do not respond or have a sub-optimal response to a course of vaccinations.

Because of the long incubation period of hepatitis B, it is possible for unrecognised hepatitis B infection to be present at the time of vaccination. The vaccine may not prevent hepatitis B infection in such cases.

The vaccine will not prevent infection caused by other agents such as hepatitis A, hepatitis C and hepatitis E and other pathogens known to infect the liver.

Caution should be exercised when prescribing to pregnant or breast-feeding women. (see section 4.6).

4.5 Interaction with other medicinal products and other forms of interaction

This vaccine can be administered:

-with hepatitis B immunoglobulin, at a separate injection site.

-to complete a primary immunisation course or as a booster dose in subjects who have previously received another hepatitis B vaccine.

-concomitantly with other vaccines, using separate sites and syringes.

4.6 Fertility, pregnancy and lactation

Fertility:

HBVAXPRO has not been evaluated in fertility studies.

Pregnancy:

There is no clinical data on the use of HBVAXPRO on pregnant women.

The vaccine should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the foetus.

Breast-feeding:

There is no clinical data on the use of HBVAXPRO on breast-feeding women.

4.7 Effects on ability to drive and use machines

No studies on the effects on the ability to drive and use machines have been performed. However, HBVAXPRO is expected to have no or negligible influence on the ability to drive and use machines.

4.8 Undesirable effects

a. Summary of the safety profile

The most common side effects seen are injection-site reactions: transient soreness, erythema, induration.

b. Tabulated summary of adverse reactions

The following undesirable effects have been reported following the widespread use of the vaccine.

As with other hepatitis B vaccines, in many instances, the causal relationship to the vaccine has not been established.

 

Adverse reactions

Frequency

 

General disorders and administration site conditions

 

 

Local reactions (injection site): Transient soreness, Erythema, Induration

Common

 

(≥1/100 to, <1/10)

 

 

 

Fatigue, Fever, Malaise, Influenza-like symptoms

Very rare (<1/10,000)

 

Blood and the lymphatic system disorders

 

 

Thrombocytopenia, Lymphadenopathy

Very rare (<1/10,000)

 

Immune system disorders

 

 

Serum sickness, Anaphylaxis, Polyarteritis nodosa

Very rare (<1/10,000)

 

Nervous system disorders

 

 

Paresthesia, Paralysis (including Bell's palsy, facial paralysis), Peripheral

 

 

neuropathies (polyradiculoneuritis, Guillain Barre Syndrome), Neuritis

 

 

(including optical neuritis), Myelitis (including transverse Myelitis),

Very rare (<1/10,000)

 

Encephalitis, Demyelinating disease of the central nervous system,

 

 

 

Exacerbation of multiple sclerosis, Multiple sclerosis, Seizure, Headache,

 

 

Dizziness, Syncope

 

 

Eye disorders

 

 

Uveitis

Very rare (<1/10,000)

 

Vascular disorders

 

 

Hypotension, Vasculitis

Very rare (<1/10,000)

 

Respiratory, thoracic and mediastinal disorders

 

 

Bronchospasm-like symptoms

Very rare (<1/10,000)

 

Gastrointestinal disorders

 

 

Vomiting, Nausea, Diarrhoea, Abdominal pain

Very rare (<1/10,000)

 

Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders

 

 

Rash, Alopecia, Pruritus, Urticaria, Erythema multiforme, Angioedema,

Very rare (<1/10,000)

 

Eczema

 

 

 

Musculoskeletal, connective tissue and bone disorders

 

 

Arthralgia, Arthritis, Myalgia, Pain in extremity

Very rare (<1/10,000)

 

Investigations

 

 

Elevation of liver enzymes

Very rare (<1/10,000)

Reporting of suspected adverse reactions

Reporting suspected adverse reactions after authorisation of the medicinal product is important. It allows continued monitoring of the benefit/risk balance of the medicinal product. Healthcare professionals are asked to report any suspected adverse reactions via the national reporting system listed in Appendix V.

4.9 Overdose

There have been reports of administration of higher than recommended doses of HBVAXPRO.

In general, the adverse event profile reported with overdose was comparable to that observed with the recommended dose of HBVAXPRO.

5. PHARMACOLOGICAL PROPERTIES

5.1 Pharmacodynamic properties

Pharmacotherapeutic group: anti-infectious, ATC code: J07BC01

The vaccine induces specific humoral antibodies against hepatitis B virus surface antigen (anti-HBsAg). Development of an antibody titre against hepatitis B virus surface antigen (anti-HBsAg) equal to or greater than 10 IU/l measured 1 to 2 months after the last injection correlates with protection to hepatitis B virus infection.

In clinical trials, 96 % of 1,497 healthy infants, children, adolescents and adults given a 3 dose course of a previous formulation of Merck’s recombinant hepatitis B vaccine developed a protective level of antibodies against hepatitis B virus surface antigen ( 10 IU/l). In two trials conducted in older adolescents and adults, 95.6-97.5 % of vaccinees developed a protective level of antibodies, with geometric mean titres in these trials ranging from 535 – 793 IU/l.

Although the duration of the protective effect of a previous formulation of Merck’s recombinant hepatitis B vaccine in healthy vaccinees is unknown, follow-up over 5-9 years of approximately 3,000 high-risk subjects given a similar plasma-derived vaccine has revealed no cases of clinically apparent hepatitis B infection.

In addition, persistence of vaccine-induced immunologic memory for hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) has been demonstrated through an anamnestic antibody response to a booster dose of a previous formulation of Merck’s recombinant hepatitis B vaccine in healthy adults. As with other hepatitis B vaccines, the duration of the protective effect in healthy vaccinees is unknown at present. The need for a booster dose of HBVAXPRO is not yet defined beyond the 12 month booster dose required for the 0, 1, 2 compressed schedule.

Reduced risk of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

Hepatocellular carcinoma is a serious complication of hepatitis B virus infection. Studies have demonstrated the link between chronic hepatitis B infection and hepatocellular carcinoma and 80 % of hepatocellular carcinomas are caused by hepatitis B virus infection. Hepatitis B vaccine has been recognized as the first anti-cancer vaccine because it can prevent primary liver cancer.

5.2 Pharmacokinetic properties

Not applicable.

5.3 Preclinical safety data

Animal reproduction studies have not been conducted.

6. PHARMACEUTICAL PARTICULARS

6.1 List of excipients

Sodium chloride

Borax

Water for injections

6.2 Incompatibilities

In the absence of compatibility studies, this medicinal product must not be mixed with other medicinal products.

6.3 Shelf life

3 years.

6.4 Special precautions for storage

Store in a refrigerator (2 °C – 8 °C).

Do not freeze.

6.5 Nature and contents of container

1 ml of suspension in pre-filled syringe (glass) without needle with a plunger stopper (gray chlorobutyl ). Pack size of 1, 10

1 ml of suspension in pre-filled syringe (glass) with 1 separate needle with a plunger stopper (gray chlorobutyl). Pack size of 1, 10

1 ml of suspension in pre-filled syringe (glass) with 2 separate needles with a plunger stopper (gray chlorobutyl). Pack size of 1, 10, 20

Not all pack sizes may be marketed.

6.6 Special precautions for disposal and other handling

The vaccine should be inspected visually in order to detect any appearance of precipitate or discolouring of the content prior to administration. If these conditions exist, the product should not be administered. Before use, the syringe should be well shaken.

Hold the syringe barrel and attach the needle by twisting in clockwise direction, until the needle fits securely on the syringe.

Any unused medicinal product or waste material should be disposed of in accordance with local requirements.

7. MARKETING AUTHORISATION HOLDER

MSD VACCINS

162 avenue Jean Jaurès

69007 Lyon France

8. MARKETING AUTHORISATION NUMBER(S)

EU/1/01/183/011

EU/1/01/183/013

EU/1/01/183/026

EU/1/01/183/027

EU/1/01/183/028

EU/1/01/183/029

EU/1/01/183/032

9. DATE OF FIRST AUTHORISATION/RENEWAL OF THE AUTHORISATION

Date of first authorisation: 27/04/2001

Date of last renewal: 27/04/2011

10. DATE OF REVISION OF THE TEXT

Detailed information on this product is available on the website of the European Medicines Agency http://www.ema.europa.eu

1. NAME OF THE MEDICINAL PRODUCT

HBVAXPRO 40 micrograms, suspension for injection

Hepatitis B vaccine (rDNA)

2. QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE COMPOSITION

One dose (1 ml) contains:

 

Hepatitis B virus surface antigen, recombinant (HBsAg) * ...................

40 micrograms

Adsorbed on amorphous aluminium hydroxyphosphate sulfate (0.50 milligram Al+)

* produced in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (strain 2150-2-3) yeast by recombinant DNA technology.

This vaccine may contain traces of formaldehyde and potassium thiocyanate which are used during the manufacturing process. See sections 4.3, 4.4 and 4.8.

For the full list of excipients, see section 6.1.

3. PHARMACEUTICAL FORM

Suspension for injection

Slightly opaque white suspension.

4. CLINICAL PARTICULARS

4.1 Therapeutic indications

HBVAXPRO is indicated for the active immunisation against hepatitis B virus infection caused by all known subtypes in predialysis and dialysis adult patients.

It can be expected that hepatitis D will also be prevented by immunisation with HBVAXPRO as hepatitis D (caused by the delta agent) does not occur in the absence of hepatitis B infection.

4.2 Posology and method of administration

Posology

Predialysis and dialysis adult patients: 1 dose (1 ml) at each injection.

Primary vaccination:

A course of vaccination should include three injections:

Schedule 0, 1, 6 months: two injections with an interval of one month; a third injection 6 months after the first administration.

Booster:

A booster dose must be considered in these vaccinees if the antibody level against hepatitis B virus surface antigen (anti-HBsAg) after primary series is less than 10 IU/l.

In accordance with standard medical practice for hepatitis B vaccine administration, regular antibody testing should be done in hemodialysis patients. A booster dose should be given when antibody levels decline below 10 IU/l.

Special dosage recommendations for known or presumed exposure to hepatitis B virus (e.g needlestick with contaminated needle):

-Hepatitis B immunoglobulin should be given as soon as possible after exposure (within 24 hours).

-The first dose of the vaccine should be given within 7 days of exposure and can be administered simultaneously with hepatitis B immunoglobulin but at a separate injection site.

-Serologic testing is also recommended, with the administration of subsequent doses of vaccine, if necessary, (i.e according to the serologic status of the patient) for short and long term protection.

-In the case of unvaccinated or incompletely vaccinated individuals, additional doses should be given as in the recommended immunisation schedule.

Method of administration

This vaccine should be administered intramuscularly.

The deltoid muscle is the preferred site for injection in adults.

Do not inject intravascularly.

Exceptionally, the vaccine may be administered subcutaneously in patients with thrombocytopoenia or bleeding disorders.

Precautions to be taken before handling or administering the product: see section 6.6.

4.3

Contraindications

-

History of hypersensitivity to the active substance, or to any of the excipients, or trace residuals

 

(e.g. formaldehyde and potassium thiocyanate), see sections 6.1 and 2.

-

Vaccination should be postponed in individuals with a severe febrile illness or acute infection.

4.4

Special warnings and precautions for use

As with all injectable vaccines, appropriate medical treatment should always be readily available in case of rare anaphylactic reactions following the administration of the vaccine (see section 4.8).

This vaccine may contain traces of formaldehyde and potassium thiocyanate which are used during the manufacturing process. Therefore, hypersensitivity reactions may occur (see sections 2 and 4.8).

Use caution when vaccinating latex-sensitive individuals since the vial stopper contains dry natural latex rubber that may cause allergic reactions.

A number of factors have been observed to reduce the immune response to hepatitis B vaccines. These factors include older age, male gender, obesity, smoking, route of administration and some chronic underlying diseases. Consideration should be given to serological testing of those subjects who may be at risk of not achieving seroprotection following a complete course of HBVAXPRO. Additional doses may need to be considered for persons who do not respond or have a sub-optimal response to a course of vaccinations.

Because of the long incubation period of hepatitis B, it is possible for unrecognised hepatitis B infection to be present at the time of vaccination. The vaccine may not prevent hepatitis B infection in such cases.

The vaccine will not prevent infection caused by other agents such as hepatitis A, hepatitis C and hepatitis E and other pathogens known to infect the liver.

Caution should be exercised when prescribing to pregnant or breast-feeding women. (see section 4.6).

4.5 Interaction with other medicinal products and other forms of interaction

This vaccine can be administered:

-with hepatitis B immunoglobulin, at a separate injection site.

-to complete a primary immunisation course or as a booster dose in subjects who have previously received another hepatitis B vaccine.

-concomitantly with other vaccines, using separate sites and syringes.

4.6 Fertility, pregnancy and lactation

Fertility:

HBVAXPRO has not been evaluated in fertility studies.

Pregnancy:

There is no clinical data on the use of HBVAXPRO on pregnant women.

The vaccine should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the foetus.

Breast-feeding:

There is no clinical data on the use of HBVAXPRO on breast-feeding women.

4.7 Effects on ability to drive and use machines

No studies on the effects on the ability to drive and use machines have been performed. However, HBVAXPRO is expected to have no or negligible influence on the ability to drive and use machines.

4.8 Undesirable effects

a. Summary of the safety profile

The most common side effects seen are injection-site reactions: transient soreness, erythema, induration.

b. Tabulated summary of adverse reactions

The following undesirable effects have been reported following the widespread use of the vaccine.

As with other hepatitis B vaccines, in many instances, the causal relationship to the vaccine has not been established.

 

Adverse reactions

Frequency

 

General disorders and administration site conditions

 

 

Local reactions (injection site): Transient soreness, Erythema, Induration

Common

 

(≥1/100 to, <1/10)

 

 

 

Fatigue, Fever, Malaise, Influenza-like symptoms

Very rare (<1/10,000)

 

Blood and the lymphatic system disorders

 

 

Thrombocytopenia, Lymphadenopathy

Very rare (<1/10,000)

 

Immune system disorders

 

 

Serum sickness, Anaphylaxis, Polyarteritis nodosa

Very rare (<1/10,000)

 

Nervous system disorders

 

 

Paresthesia, Paralysis (including Bell's palsy, facial paralysis), Peripheral

 

 

neuropathies (polyradiculoneuritis, Guillain Barre Syndrome), Neuritis

 

 

(including optical neuritis), Myelitis (including transverse Myelitis),

Very rare (<1/10,000)

 

Encephalitis, Demyelinating disease of the central nervous system,

 

 

 

Exacerbation of multiple sclerosis, Multiple sclerosis, Seizure, Headache,

 

 

Dizziness, Syncope

 

 

Eye Disorders

 

 

Uveitis

Very rare (<1/10,000)

 

Vascular disorders

 

 

Hypotension, Vasculitis

Very rare (<1/10,000)

 

Respiratory, thoracic and mediastinal disorders

 

 

Bronchospasm-like symptoms

Very rare (<1/10,000)

 

Gastrointestinal disorders

 

 

Vomiting, Nausea, Diarrhoea, Abdominal pain

Very rare (<1/10,000)

 

Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders

 

 

Rash, Alopecia, Pruritus, Urticaria, Erythema multiforme, Angioedema,

Very rare (<1/10,000)

 

Eczema

 

 

 

Musculoskeletal, connective tissue and bone disorders

 

 

Arthralgia, Arthritis, Myalgia, Pain in extremity

Very rare (<1/10,000)

 

Investigations

 

 

Elevation of liver enzymes

Very rare (<1/10,000)

Reporting of suspected adverse reactions

Reporting suspected adverse reactions after authorisation of the medicinal product is important. It allows continued monitoring of the benefit/risk balance of the medicinal product. Healthcare professionals are asked to report any suspected adverse reactions via the national reporting system listed in Appendix V.

4.9 Overdose

There have been reports of administration of higher than recommended doses of HBVAXPRO.

In general, the adverse event profile reported with overdose was comparable to that observed with the recommended dose of HBVAXPRO.

5. PHARMACOLOGICAL PROPERTIES

5.1 Pharmacodynamic properties

Pharmacotherapeutic group: anti-infectious, ATC code: J07BC01

The vaccine induces specific humoral antibodies against hepatitis B virus surface antigen (anti-HBsAg). Development of an antibody titre against hepatitis B virus surface antigen (anti-HBsAg) equal to or greater than 10 IU/l measured 1 to 2 months after the last injection correlates with protection to hepatitis B virus infection.

In clinical trials, 96 % of 1,497 healthy infants, children, adolescents and adults given a 3 dose course of a previous formulation of Merck’s recombinant hepatitis B vaccine developed a protective level of antibodies against hepatitis B virus surface antigen ( 10 IU/l).

Although the duration of the protective effect of a previous formulation of Merck’s recombinant hepatitis B vaccine in healthy vaccinees is unknown, follow-up over 5-9 years of approximately 3,000 high-risk subjects given a similar plasma-derived vaccine has revealed no cases of clinically apparent hepatitis B infection.

In addition, persistence of vaccine-induced immunologic memory for hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) has been demonstrated through an anamnestic antibody response to a booster dose of a previous formulation of Merck’s recombinant hepatitis B vaccine in healthy adults.

In accordance with standard medical practice for hepatitis B vaccine administration, regular antibody testing should be done in hemodialysis patients. A booster dose should be given when antibody levels decline below 10 IU/l. In subjects in whom insufficient antibody titres are achieved after boosting, the use of alternative hepatitis B vaccines should be considered.

Reduced risk of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

Hepatocellular carcinoma is a serious complication of hepatitis B virus infection. Studies have demonstrated the link between chronic hepatitis B infection and hepatocellular carcinoma and 80 % of hepatocellular carcinomas are caused by hepatitis B virus infection. Hepatitis B vaccine has been recognized as the first anti-cancer vaccine because it can prevent primary liver cancer.

5.2 Pharmacokinetic properties

Not applicable.

5.3 Preclinical safety data

Animal reproduction studies have not been conducted.

6. PHARMACEUTICAL PARTICULARS

6.1 List of excipients

Sodium chloride

Borax

Water for injections.

6.2 Incompatibilities

In the absence of compatibility studies, this medicinal product must not be mixed with other medicinal products.

6.3 Shelf life

3 years.

6.4 Special precautions for storage

Store in a refrigerator (2 °C – 8 °C).

Do not freeze.

6.5 Nature and contents of container

1 ml of suspension in vial (glass) with stopper (gray butyl rubber) and aluminum seals with plastic flip caps. Pack size of 1.

6.6 Special precautions for disposal and other handling

The vaccine should be inspected visually in order to detect any appearance of precipitate or discolouring of the content prior to administration. If these conditions exist, the product should not be administered. Before use, the vial should be well shaken.

Once the vial has been penetrated, the withdrawn vaccine should be used promptly, and the vial must be discarded.

Any unused medicinal product or waste material should be disposed of in accordance with local requirements.

7. MARKETING AUTHORISATION HOLDER

MSD VACCINS

162 avenue Jean Jaurès

69007 Lyon France

8. MARKETING AUTHORISATION NUMBER(S)

EU/1/01/183/015

9. DATE OF FIRST AUTHORISATION/RENEWAL OF THE AUTHORISATION

Date of first authorisation: 27/04/2001

Date of last renewal: 27/04/2011

10. DATE OF REVISION OF THE TEXT

Detailed information on this product is available on the website of the European Medicines Agency http://www.ema.europa.eu

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