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Helicobacter Test INFAI (13C-urea) – Summary of product characteristics - V04CX

Updated on site: 07-Oct-2017

Medication nameHelicobacter Test INFAI
ATC CodeV04CX
Substance13C-urea
ManufacturerINFAI, Institut für biomedizinische Analytik

1.NAME OF THE MEDICINAL PRODUCT

Helicobacter Test INFAI 75 mg powder for oral solution

2.QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE COMPOSITION

One jar contains 75 mg of 13C-urea powder.

For the full list of excipients, see section 6.1.

3.PHARMACEUTICAL FORM

White, crystalline powder for oral solution.

4.CLINICAL PARTICULARS

4.1Therapeutic indications

Helicobacter Test INFAI may be used for in vivo diagnosis of gastroduodenal Helicobacter pylori infection in:

-adults,

-adolescents, who are likely to have peptic ulcer disease.

This medicinal product is for diagnostic use only.

4.2Posology and method of administration

This medicinal product should be administered by a healthcare professional and under appropriate medical supervision.

Posology

Helicobacter Test INFAI is a breath test for single administration. Patients from the age of 12 must take the contents of 1 jar with 75 mg.

Method of administration

For performance of the test, 200 ml 100 % orange juice or 1 g citric acid in 200 ml water for patients from the age of 12 and older (as a pre-administered test meal), as well as tap water (for dissolving the 13C-urea powder) are necessary.

The patient must have fasted for over 6 hours, preferably overnight. The test procedure takes approximately 40 minutes.

In case it is necessary to repeat the test procedure, this should not be done until the following day.

The suppression of Helicobacter pylori might give false negative results. Therefore the test shall be used after at least four weeks without systemic antibacterial therapy and two weeks after last dose of acid antisecretory agents. Both might interfere with the Helicobacter pylori status. This is especially important after Helicobacter eradication therapy.

It is important to follow the instructions for use adequately (see section 6.6), otherwise the reliability of the outcome will become questionable.

4.3Contraindications

The test must not be used in patients with documented or suspected gastric infection or atrophic gastritis, which might interfere with the urea breath test (see section 4.2).

4.4Special warnings and precautions for use

A positive test alone does not constitute indication for eradication therapy. Differential diagnosis with invasive endoscopic methods might be indicated in order to examine the presence of any other complicating conditions, e.g. ulcer, autoimmune gastritis and malignancies.

There is insufficient data on the diagnostic liability of the Helicobacter Test INFAI to recommend its use in patients with gastrectomy.

For children from the age of 3, Helicobacter Test INFAI for children aged 3 to 11 is available.

In individual cases of A-gastritis (atrophic gastritis) the breath test may have false positive results; other tests may be required to confirm the Helicobacter pylori status.

If the patient vomits during the test procedure, necessitating the repetition of the test, this should be done in fasted condition and not before the following day (see section 4.2).

4.5Interaction with other medicinal products and other forms of interaction

Helicobacter Test INFAI will be affected by all treatments interfering with Helicobacter pylori status or urease activity.

4.6Fertility, pregnancy and lactation

It is not expected that the test procedure may be harmful during pregnancy or lactation.

It is recommended to take notice of the product information of eradication therapy products for their use during pregnancy and lactation.

4.7Effects on ability to drive and use machines

Helicobacter Test INFAI has no influence on the ability to drive and use machines.

4.8Undesirable effects

None known.

Reporting of suspected adverse reactions

Reporting suspected adverse reactions after authorisation of the medicinal product is important. It allows continued monitoring of the benefit/risk balance of the medicinal product. Healthcare professionals are asked to report any suspected adverse reactions via the national reporting system listed in Appendix V.

4.9Overdose

Due to the fact that only 75 mg of 13C-urea is delivered, an overdose is not expected.

5.PHARMACOLOGICAL PROPERTIES

5.1Pharmacodynamic properties

Pharmacotherapeutic group: Other diagnostic agents, ATC code: VO4CX

For the amount of 75 mg 13C-urea, which is administered per unit in the course of the breath test, no pharmacodynamic activity is described.

After oral ingestion the labelled urea reaches the gastric mucosa. In the presence of Helicobacter pylori the 13C-urea is metabolised by the enzyme urease of Helicobacter pylori.

2H2N(13CO)NH2 + 2H2O Enzyme urease 4NH3 + 213CO2

The carbon dioxide diffuses into the blood vessels. From there it is transported as bicarbonate into the lung and liberated as 13CO2 with the exhaled air.

In the presence of bacterial urease the ratio of the 13C/12C-carbon isotopes is significantly changed. The portion of 13CO2 in the breath samples is determined by isotope-ratio-mass-spectrometry (IRMS) and stated as an absolute difference (∆δ-value) between the 00-minute- and the 30-minute-values.

Urease is produced in the stomach only by Helicobacter pylori. Other urease producing bacteria were seldom found in the gastric flora.

The cut off point for discriminating Helicobacter pylori-negative and positive patients is determined to

be ∆δ-value of 4 ‰, which means that an increase of the ∆δ-value by more than 4 ‰ indicates an infection. In comparison to bioptic diagnostics of an infection with Helicobacter pylori, the breath test achieved in clinical trials on 457 patients, a sensitivity in the range of 96.5 % to 97.9 % [95 %-CI: 94.05 %-99.72 %], and a specificity range from 96.7 % to 100 %. [95 %-CI: 94.17 %-103.63 %], whereas in clinical trials on 93 adolescents from the age 12–17, a sensitivity of 97.7 % [90 %-CI: 91.3 %], and a specificity of 96.0 % [90 %-CI: 89.7 %] were achieved.

In the absence of bacterial urease, the whole amount of the administered urea after absorption from the gastrointestinal tract will be metabolised like the endogenous urea. Ammonia which is produced as described above by the bacterial hydrolysis is included into the metabolism as NH4+.

5.2Pharmacokinetic properties

The orally applied 13C-urea is metabolised to carbon dioxide and ammonia or is integrated into the body’s own urea cycle. Any increase in 13CO2 will be measured by isotopic analysis.

Absorption and distribution of 13CO2 is faster than the urease reaction. Therefore, the rate-limiting step in the whole process is the cleavage of 13C-urea by Helicobacter's urease.

Only in Helicobacter pylori-positive patients does the administration of 75 mg labelled urea lead to a significant increase of 13CO2 in the breath sample within the first 30 minutes.

5.3Preclinical safety data

No concerns in relation to the clinical use of the product.

6.PHARMACEUTICAL PARTICULARS

6.1List of excipients

None.

6.2Incompatibilities

Not applicable.

6.3Shelf-life

3 years

6.4Special precautions for storage

Do not store above 25°C.

6.5Nature and contents of container

A test set contains the following parts:

No.

Component

Quantity

Jar (10 ml volume, polystyrene with polyethylene snap cap)

containing 75 mg 13C-urea powder for oral solution

 

Labelled sample glass- or plastic- containers for sampling, storing

 

and transporting the breath samples for analysis:

 

Sampling time: 00-minute-value

 

 

Sampling time: 30-minute-value

Bendable straw for collection of the breath samples into the

corresponding sample containers

 

 

Data sheet for patient documentation

Package leaflet

Page of barcode labels and sticker

6.6Special precautions for disposal and other handling

1.The test is to be performed in the presence of a qualified person.

2.Each patient should be documented according to the provided data sheet. It is recommended to perform the test with the patient being in a resting position.

3.The test starts with the collection of samples for the determination of baseline-value (00-minute- value):

Take the straw and the two sample tubes with the label “Sampling time: 00-minute-value” out of the test set.

Remove the stopper from one of the sample tubes, unwrap the straw and place the straw into the container.

Now the patient breathes gently through the straw until the inner surface of the sample tube steams up.

By continuously breathing the patient must pull out the straw and immediately close the sample tube with its stopper.

(If the sample tube remains open for more than 30 seconds, the test result might be falsified.)

Hold the sample tube upright and stick the bar-code label marked “00-minute-value” round the sample tube, so that the lines of the bar-code are horizontal.

4.Fill up the second sample tube (Label “Sampling time: 00-minute-value”) with breath by following the same procedure.

5.Now 200 ml of 100 % orange juice or 1 g citric acid in 200 ml water must be drunk by the patient without delay.

6.Now the preparation of the test solution follows:

The jar labelled 13C-urea powder” is taken from the test set, opened, and filled up to three quarters of its volume with tap water.

Close the jar and shake it carefully until all the powder is dissolved. Pour the contents into a drinking glass.

Fill the 13C-urea jar to the brim with water for a second and third time and add these contents to the drinking glass (total volume of tap water should be approximately 30 ml).

7.This test solution must now be drunk immediately by the patient, and the time of application must be noted.

8.Thirty minutes after administration of the test solution (point 7), collect the 30-minute-value samples in the two containers which are left in the test package (Label “Sampling time: 30-minute-value”), as described under steps 3 to 4. Use the bar-code labels marked “30-minute- value” for these samples.

9.Put the relevant bar-code label on the data sheet for patient documentation. Finally seal the package with the sticker.

10.The sample tubes have to be sent in the original packaging, for analysis, to a qualified laboratory.

Analysis of breath samples and testing specification for laboratories

The breath samples, collected in 10 ml glass- or plastic sample tubes, are analysed by isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS).

The analysis of the 13C/12C-ratio in carbon dioxide of breath is an integrated part of the diagnostic test Helicobacter Test INFAI. The accuracy of the test strongly depends on the quality of the breath analysis. The specification of breath analysis parameters like linearity, stability (reference gas precision), and precision of measurement are fundamental for the accuracy of the system.

It has to be ensured that the analysis is carried out by a qualified laboratory. The method validated in the application is as follows:

Sample preparation for (IRMS)

To determine the 13C/12C-ratio of carbon dioxide in breath by mass spectrometric analysis the carbon dioxide must be separated from the breath and introduced into the mass spectrometer. The automatic preparation system for isotope mass spectrometers which is dedicated for breath test analysis is based on a gas-chromatographic continuous flow separation technique.

Water is removed from the sample by means of a Nafion water trap or the gas-chromatographic preparation system that separates the individual gases in a gas chromatographic column with Helium as eluent. Passing the column the separated gas species of breath are detected by an ionisation detector. The fraction of carbon dioxide gas, identified by its characteristic retention time, is introduced into mass spectrometer.

Mass spectrometric analysis

To analyse the separated carbon dioxide sample gas its molecules must be ionised, formed into a beam, accelerated by an electric field, deflected in a magnetic field, and finally detected. These five processes take place in the analyser of a mass spectrometer, which consists of three separate sections: the source, flight tube, and collector. Ionisation, beam formation and acceleration all occur in the source, magnetic deflection takes place in the flight tube and detection takes place in the collector.

Sample inlet

For introduction of the carbon dioxide into the analyser many sample inlet systems are available. For breath test analysis the individual balancing of the carbon dioxide of the sample to a reference standard gas is essential. This ensures the high accuracy of this system, as calculation of the isotopic content in carbon dioxide is done with respect to an independent standard.

Specifications for determining 13C/12C-ratios

The breath test concept relies on the administration of a specifically 13C-labelled urea whose metabolite utilisation is monitored by measuring 13CO2 in the expired breath gas.

The mass spectrometer must be capable of:

Multiple replicate analyses:

Minimum of 3 replicate analyses of the same sample during operation

Security access:

Storing of operating parameters and of results under security access to

 

avoid later manipulation

Adjustment:

13C/12C-ratio with respect to Pee Dee Beliminate (PDB)

Sample loop:

< 200 µl

The principal tests to verify the specifications are linearity, stability (reference gas precision), and precision of measurement.

All mass spectrometers for breath analysis must comply with the following specifications:

Linearity:

≤ 0.5

‰ for breath samples varying between 1 % and 7 %

 

CO2-concentration

Stability:

≤ 0.2

‰ on 10 consecutive pulses

Precision of measurement:

≤ 0.3

‰ for 13C at natural abundance using a 10 ml breath sample tube

with 3 % CO2 breath concentration

Helicobacter pylori infection is present if the difference in 13C/12C of baseline-value and 30-minute- value exceeds 4.0 ‰.

Alternatively, any other suitable-validated method may be used, carried out by any objectively qualified laboratory.

7.MARKETING AUTHORISATION HOLDER

INFAI, Institut für biomedizinische Analytik & NMR-Imaging GmbH

Universitätsstraße 142

D-44799 Bochum

Germany

8.MARKETING AUTHORISATION NUMBER

EU/1/97/045/001

9.DATE OF FIRST AUTHORISATION/RENEWAL OF THE AUTHORISATION

Date of first authorisation: 14 August 1997

Date of latest renewal: 14 August 2007

10.DATE OF REVISION OF THE TEXT

Detailed information on this medicinal product is available on the website of the European Medicines Agency http://www.ema.europa.eu.

1. NAME OF THE MEDICINAL PRODUCT

Helicobacter Test INFAI 75 mg powder for oral solution

2. QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE COMPOSITION

One jar contains 75 mg of 13C-urea powder.

For the full list of excipients, see section 6.1.

3. PHARMACEUTICAL FORM

White, crystalline powder for oral solution.

4. CLINICAL PARTICULARS

4.1 Therapeutic indications

Helicobacter Test INFAI may be used for in vivo diagnosis of gastroduodenal Helicobacter pylori infection in:

-adults,

-adolescents, who are likely to have peptic ulcer disease.

This medicinal product is for diagnostic use only.

4.2 Posology and method of administration

This medicinal product should be administered by a healthcare professional and under appropriate medical supervision.

Posology

Helicobacter Test INFAI is a breath test for single administration. Patients from the age of 12 must take the contents of 1 jar with 75 mg.

Method of administration

For performance of the test, 200 ml 100 % orange juice or 1 g citric acid in 200 ml water for patients from the age of 12 and older (as a pre-administered test meal), as well as tap water (for dissolving the 13C-urea powder) are necessary.

The patient must have fasted for over 6 hours, preferably overnight. The test procedure takes approximately 40 minutes.

In case it is necessary to repeat the test procedure, this should not be done until the following day.

The suppression of Helicobacter pylori might give false negative results. Therefore the test shall be used after at least four weeks without systemic antibacterial therapy and two weeks after last dose of acid antisecretory agents. Both might interfere with the Helicobacter pylori status. This is especially important after Helicobacter eradication therapy.

It is important to follow the instructions for use adequately (see section 6.6), otherwise the reliability of the outcome will become questionable.

4.3 Contraindications

The test must not be used in patients with documented or suspected gastric infection or atrophic gastritis, which might interfere with the urea breath test (see section 4.2).

4.4 Special warnings and precautions for use

A positive test alone does not constitute indication for eradication therapy. Differential diagnosis with invasive endoscopic methods might be indicated in order to examine the presence of any other complicating conditions, e.g. ulcer, autoimmune gastritis and malignancies.

There is insufficient data on the diagnostic liability of the Helicobacter Test INFAI to recommend its use in patients with gastrectomy.

For children from the age of 3, Helicobacter Test INFAI for children aged 3 to 11 is available.

In individual cases of A-gastritis (atrophic gastritis) the breath test may have false positive results; other tests may be required to confirm the Helicobacter pylori status.

If the patient vomits during the test procedure, necessitating the repetition of the test, this should be done in fasted condition and not before the following day (see section 4.2).

4.5 Interaction with other medicinal products and other forms of interaction

Helicobacter Test INFAI will be affected by all treatments interfering with Helicobacter pylori status or urease activity.

4.6 Fertility, pregnancy and lactation

It is not expected that the test procedure may be harmful during pregnancy or lactation.

It is recommended to take notice of the product information of eradication therapy products for their use during pregnancy and lactation.

4.7 Effects on ability to drive and use machines

Helicobacter Test INFAI has no influence on the ability to drive and use machines.

4.8 Undesirable effects

None known.

Reporting of suspected adverse reactions

Reporting suspected adverse reactions after authorisation of the medicinal product is important. It allows continued monitoring of the benefit/risk balance of the medicinal product. Healthcare professionals are asked to report any suspected adverse reactions via the national reporting system listed in Appendix V.

4.9 Overdose

Due to the fact that only 75 mg of 13C-urea is delivered, an overdose is not expected.

5. PHARMACOLOGICAL PROPERTIES

5.1 Pharmacodynamic properties

Pharmacotherapeutic group: Other diagnostic agents, ATC code: VO4CX

For the amount of 75 mg 13C-urea, which is administered per unit in the course of the breath test, no pharmacodynamic activity is described.

After oral ingestion the labelled urea reaches the gastric mucosa. In the presence of Helicobacter pylori the 13C-urea is metabolised by the enzyme urease of Helicobacter pylori.

2H2N(13CO)NH2 + 2H2O Enzyme urease 4NH3 + 213CO2

The carbon dioxide diffuses into the blood vessels. From there it is transported as bicarbonate into the lung and liberated as 13CO2 with the exhaled air.

In the presence of bacterial urease the ratio of the 13C/12C-carbon isotopes is significantly changed. The portion of 13CO2 in the breath samples is determined by non-dispersive infrared spectrometry and stated as an absolute difference (∆δ-value) between the 00-minute- and the 30-minute-values.

Urease is produced in the stomach only by Helicobacter pylori. Other urease producing bacteria were seldom found in the gastric flora.

The cut off point for discriminating Helicobacter pylori-negative and positive patients is determined to

be ∆δ-value of 4 ‰, which means that an increase of the ∆δ-value by more than 4 ‰ indicates an infection. In comparison to bioptic diagnostics of an infection with Helicobacter pylori, the breath test achieved in clinical trials on 457 patients, a sensitivity in the range of 96.5 % to 97.9 % [95 %-CI: 94.05 %-99.72 %], and a specificity range from 96.7 % to 100 %. [95 %-CI: 94.17 %-103.63 %].

In the absence of bacterial urease, the whole amount of the administered urea after absorption from the gastrointestinal tract will be metabolised like the endogenous urea. Ammonia which is produced as described above by the bacterial hydrolysis is included into the metabolism as NH4+.

5.2 Pharmacokinetic properties

The orally applied 13C-urea is metabolised to carbon dioxide and ammonia or is integrated into the body’s own urea cycle. Any increase in 13CO2 will be measured by isotopic analysis.

Absorption and distribution of 13CO2 is faster than the urease reaction. Therefore, the rate-limiting step in the whole process is the cleavage of 13C-urea by Helicobacter's urease.

Only in Helicobacter pylori-positive patients does the administration of 75 mg labelled urea lead to a significant increase of 13CO2 in the breath sample within the first 30 minutes.

5.3 Preclinical safety data

No concerns in relation to the clinical use of the product.

6. PHARMACEUTICAL PARTICULARS

6.1 List of excipients

None.

6.2 Incompatibilities

Not applicable.

6.3 Shelf-life

3 years

6.4 Special precautions for storage

Do not store above 25°C.

6.5 Nature and contents of container

A test set contains 1 jar with the additional components:

No.

Component

Quantity

Jar (10 ml volume, polystyrene with polyethylene snap cap)

containing 75 mg 13C-urea powder for oral solution

Breath bags:

 

 

Sampling time: 00-minute-value

 

Sampling time: 30-minute-value

Bendable straw for collection of the breath samples into the

corresponding breath bags

 

 

Data sheet for patient documentation

Package leaflet

Page of barcode labels and sticker

A test set contains 50 jars with the additional components:

No.

Component

Quantity

Jar (10 ml volume, polystyrene with polyethylene snap cap)

containing 75 mg 13C-urea powder for oral solution

 

Breath bags:

 

Sampling time: 00-minute-value

 

Sampling time: 30-minute-value

Bendable straw for collection of the breath samples into the

corresponding breath bags

 

 

Data sheet for patient documentation

Package leaflet

Page of barcode labels and sticker

6.6 Special precautions for disposal and other handling

1.The test is to be performed in the presence of a qualified person.

2.Each patient should be documented according to the provided data sheet. It is recommended to perform the test with the patient being in a resting position.

3.The test starts with the collection of samples for the determination of baseline-value (00-minute- value):

Take the straw and the breath bag with the label “Sampling time: 00-minute-value” out of the test set.

Remove the stopper from the breath bag, unwrap the straw and place the straw into the breath bag.

Now the patient breathes gently through the straw.

By continuously breathing the patient must pull out the straw and immediately close the breath bag with its stopper.

(If the breath bag remains open for more than 30 seconds, the test result might be falsified.)

Hold the breath bag upright and stick the bar-code label marked “00-minute-value” on the breath bag.

4.Now 200 ml of 100 % orange juice or 1 g citric acid in 200 ml water must be drunk by the patient without delay.

5.Now the preparation of the test solution follows:

The jar labelled 13C-urea powder” is taken from the test set, opened, and filled up to three quarters of its volume with tap water.

Close the jar and shake it carefully until all the powder is dissolved. Pour the contents into a drinking glass.

Fill the 13C-urea jar to the brim with water for a second and third time and add these contents to the drinking glass (total volume of tap water should be approximately 30 ml).

6.This test solution must now be drunk immediately by the patient, and the time of application must be noted.

7.Thirty minutes after administration of the test solution (point 6), collect the 30-minute-value sample in the breath bag, which is left in the test package (Label “Sampling time: 30-minute- value”), as described under step 3. Use the bar-code label marked “30-minute-value” for this sample.

8.Put the relevant bar-code label on the data sheet for patient documentation. Finally seal the package with the sticker.

9.The breath bags have to be sent in the original packaging, for analysis, to a qualified laboratory.

Analysis of breath samples and testing specification for laboratories

The breath samples, collected in 100 ml breath bags, are analysed by non-dispersive infrared spectrometry (NDIR).

The analysis of the 13C/12C-ratio in carbon dioxide of breath is an integrated part of the diagnostic test Helicobacter Test INFAI. The accuracy of the test strongly depends on the quality of the breath analysis. The specification of breath analysis parameters like linearity, stability (reference gas precision), and precision of measurement are fundamental for the accuracy of the system.

It has to be ensured that the analysis is carried out by a qualified laboratory. It is recommended to measure as soon as possible after the breath collection, in any case not later than 4 weeks.

The method validated in the application is as follows:

Sample preparation for Infrared Spectroscopy (NDIR)

The determination of 13C/12C-ratio in the carbon dioxide of the breath samples is carried out directly in the breath. The breath from the bags will be introduced into the NDIR spectrometer using a variable gas pump. The water content of the breath sample will be kept mostly constant through Nafion water trap. For calibration and measurement necessary CO2-free air (zero-gas) will be produced via an integrated CO2-absorber in the analysator.

Infrared spectroscopic analysis

To analyse the carbon dioxide in breath a broad band infrared radiation bunch emitted by an infrared radiation source is alternately sent through the measuring chamber and a reference chamber by means of a beam chopper. The modulated infrared beams then enter the infrared detectors, which are double layer transmission detectors with a front, and a rear chamber each filled with one of the isotopicly pure gases (13CO2 or 12CO2, respectively) to be measured. The infrared radiation in the measuring chamber is weakened by the gas component to be measured. Thus the radiation equilibrium between measuring and comparative beam is disturbed. In consequence there is a temperature fluctuation, which in its turn causes a fluctuating pressure in the front chamber of the infrared detector. A membrane capacitor connected with this chamber, which is exposed to a high resistance direct voltage, transforms these

pressure fluctuations into an alternating voltage, which is a measure of the isotopic composition of breath carbon dioxide.

Sample Inlet

A semi-automatic sample inlet system injects the measuring gas in definite amounts into the zero gas circulating in the gas circuit of the infrared spectrometer. This enables measurement of the 13C/12C-ratio at any CO2 concentration above 1 %.

Specifications for determining 13C/12C-ratios

The breath test concept is based upon the oral administration of 13C-labelled urea whose enzymatic hydrolysis is monitored by measuring 13CO2 in breath using non-dispersive infrared spectrometry.

• Infrared spectrometers for breath analysis must comply with the following specifications:

Multiple replicate analyses:

Minimum of 3 replicate analyses of the same sample during operation

Security access:

Storing of operating parameters and of results under security access to

 

avoid later manipulation

For verifying the specifications linearity, stability, and precision of measurement have to be tested.

Zero point adjustment of the detectors by means of the zero gas generated in the spectrometer. Endpoint adjustment of the detectors by means of calibration gases of precisely known concentration.

Linearity:

≤ 0.5

‰ for breath samples varying between 1 % and 7 %

 

CO2-concentration

Stability:

≤ 0.3

‰ at 10 consecutive pulses

Precision of measurement:

≤ 0.5

‰ for 13C at natural abundance using a 100 ml breath bag with

3 % CO2 breath concentration

Helicobacter pylori infection is present if the difference in 13C/12C of baseline-value and 30-minute- value exceeds 4.0 ‰.

Alternatively, any other suitable-validated method may be used, carried out by any objectively qualified laboratory.

7. MARKETING AUTHORISATION HOLDER

INFAI, Institut für biomedizinische Analytik & NMR-Imaging GmbH

Universitätsstraße 142

D-44799 Bochum

Germany

8. MARKETING AUTHORISATION NUMBERS

EU/1/97/045/002

EU/1/97/045/004

9. DATE OF FIRST AUTHORISATION/RENEWAL OF THE AUTHORISATION

Date of first authorisation: 14 August 1997

Date of latest renewal: 14 August 2007

10. DATE OF REVISION OF THE TEXT

Detailed information on this medicinal product is available on the website of the European Medicines Agency http://www.ema.europa.eu.

1. NAME OF THE MEDICINAL PRODUCT

Helicobacter Test INFAI for children of the age 3-11 45 mg powder for oral solution

2. QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE COMPOSITION

One jar contains 45 mg of 13C-urea powder.

For the full list of excipients, see section 6.1.

3. PHARMACEUTICAL FORM

White, crystalline powder for oral solution.

4. CLINICAL PARTICULARS

4.1 Therapeutic indications

Helicobacter Test INFAI for children of the age 3-11 may be used for in vivo diagnosis of gastroduodenal Helicobacter pylori infection:

-for the evalutation of the success of eradication treatment, or,

-when invasive tests cannot be performed, or

-when there are discordant results arising from invasive tests.

This medicinal product is for diagnostic use only.

4.2 Posology and method of administration

This medicinal product should be administered by a healthcare professional and under appropriate medical supervision.

Posology

Helicobacter Test INFAI for children of the age 3-11 is a breath test for single administration. Children from the age of 3 to 11 must take the contents of 1 jar with 45 mg.

Method of administration

For performance of the test, 100 ml 100 % orange juice for patients from the age of 3 to 11 (as a pre- administered test meal), as well as tap water (for dissolving the 13C-urea powder) are necessary.

The patient must have fasted for over 6 hours, preferably overnight. The test procedure takes approximately 40 minutes.

In case it is necessary to repeat the test procedure, this should not be done until the following day.

The suppression of Helicobacter pylori might give false negative results. Therefore the test shall be used after at least four weeks without systemic antibacterial therapy and two weeks after last dose of acid antisecretory agents. Both might interfere with the Helicobacter pylori status. This is especially important after Helicobacter eradication therapy.

It is important to follow the instructions for use adequately (see section 6.6), otherwise the reliability of the outcome will become questionable.

4.3 Contraindications

The test must not be used in patients with documented or suspected gastric infection or atrophic gastritis, which might interfere with the urea breath test (see section 4.2).

4.4 Special warnings and precautions for use

A positive test alone does not constitute indication for eradication therapy. Differential diagnosis with invasive endoscopic methods might be indicated in order to examine the presence of any other complicating conditions, e.g. ulcer, autoimmune gastritis and malignancies.

There is insufficient data on the diagnostic liability of the Helicobacter Test INFAI for children of the age 3-11 to recommend its use in patients with gastrectomy and in patients younger than 3 years of age.

In individual cases of A-gastritis (atrophic gastritis) the breath test may have false positive results; other tests may be required to confirm the Helicobacter pylori status.

If the patient vomits during the test procedure, necessitating the repetition of the test, this should be done in fasted condition and not before the following day (see section 4.2).

4.5 Interaction with other medicinal products and other forms of interaction

Helicobacter Test INFAI for children of the age 3-11 will be affected by all treatments interfering with Helicobacter pylori status or urease activity.

4.6 Fertility, pregnancy and lactation

Not applicable.

4.7 Effects on ability to drive and use machines

None.

4.8 Undesirable effects

None known.

Reporting of suspected adverse reactions

Reporting suspected adverse reactions after authorisation of the medicinal product is important. It allows continued monitoring of the benefit/risk balance of the medicinal product. Healthcare professionals are asked to report any suspected adverse reactions via the national reporting system listed in Appendix V.

4.9 Overdose

Due to the fact that only 45 mg of 13C-urea is delivered, an overdose is not expected.

5. PHARMACOLOGICAL PROPERTIES

5.1 Pharmacodynamic properties

Pharmacotherapeutic group: Other diagnostic agents, ATC code: VO4CX

For the amount of 45 mg 13C-urea, which is administered per unit in the course of the breath test, no pharmacodynamic activity is described.

After oral ingestion the labelled urea reaches the gastric mucosa. In the presence of Helicobacter pylori the 13C-urea is metabolised by the enzyme urease of Helicobacter pylori.

2H2N(13CO)NH2 + 2H2O Enzyme urease 4NH3 + 213CO2

The carbon dioxide diffuses into the blood vessels. From there it is transported as bicarbonate into the lung and liberated as 13CO2 with the exhaled air.

In the presence of bacterial urease the ratio of the 13C/12C-carbon isotopes is significantly changed. The portion of 13CO2 in the breath samples is determined by isotope-ratio-mass-spectrometry (IRMS) and stated as an absolute difference (∆δ-value) between the 00-minute- and the 30-minute-values.

Urease is produced in the stomach only by Helicobacter pylori. Other urease producing bacteria were seldom found in the gastric flora.

The cut off point for discriminating Helicobacter pylori-negative and positive patients is determined to

be ∆δ-value of 4 ‰, which means that an increase of the ∆δ-value by more than 4 ‰ indicates an infection. In comparison to bioptic diagnostics of an infection with Helicobacter pylori, the breath test achieved in a clinical trial on 168 patients from the age of 3 to 11, a sensitivity of 98.4 % [90 %-CI:

≥ 93.9 %], and a specificity of 98.1 % [90 %-CI: ≥ 95.1 %].

In the absence of bacterial urease, the whole amount of the administered urea after absorption from the gastrointestinal tract will be metabolised like the endogenous urea. Ammonia which is produced as described above by the bacterial hydrolysis is included into the metabolism as NH4+.

5.2 Pharmacokinetic properties

The orally applied 13C-urea is metabolised to carbon dioxide and ammonia or is integrated into the body’s own urea cycle. Any increase in 13CO2 will be measured by isotopic analysis.

Absorption and distribution of 13CO2 is faster than the urease reaction. Therefore, the rate-limiting step in the whole process is the cleavage of 13C-urea by Helicobacter's urease.

Only in Helicobacter pylori- positive patients does the administration of 45 mg labelled urea lead to a significant increase of 13CO2 in the breath sample within the first 30 minutes.

5.3 Preclinical safety data

No concerns in relation to the clinical use of the product.

6. PHARMACEUTICAL PARTICULARS

6.1 List of excipients

None.

6.2 Incompatibilities

Not applicable.

6.3 Shelf-life

3 years

6.4 Special precautions for storage

Do not store above 25°C.

6.5 Nature and contents of container

A test set contains the following parts:

No.

Component

Quantity

Jar (10 ml volume, polystyrene with polyethylene snap cap)

containing 45 mg 13C-urea powder for oral solution

 

Labelled sample glass- or plastic- containers for sampling, storing

 

and transporting the breath samples for analysis:

 

Sampling time: 00-minute-value

 

 

Sampling time: 30-minute-value

Bendable straw for collection of the breath samples into the

corresponding sample containers

 

 

Data sheet for patient documentation

Package leaflet

Page of barcode labels and sticker

6.6 Special precautions for disposal and other handling

1.The test is to be performed in the presence of a qualified person.

2.Each patient should be documented according to the provided data sheet. It is recommended to perform the test with the patient being in a resting position.

3.The test starts with the collection of samples for the determination of baseline-value (00-minute- value):

Take the straw and the two sample tubes with the label “Sampling time: 00-minute-value” out of the test set.

Remove the stopper from one of the sample tubes, unwrap the straw and place the straw into the container.

Now the patient breathes gently through the straw until the inner surface of the sample tube steams up.

By continuously breathing the patient must pull out the straw and immediately close the sample tube with its stopper.

(If the sample tube remains open for more than 30 seconds, the test result might be falsified.)

Hold the sample tube upright and stick the bar-code label marked “00-minute-value” round the sample tube, so that the lines of the bar-code are horizontal.

4.Fill up the second sample tube (Label “Sampling time: 00-minute-value”) with breath by following the same procedure.

5.Now 100 ml of 100 % orange juice must be drunk by the patient without delay.

6.Now the preparation of the test solution follows:

The jar labelled 13C-urea powder” is taken from the test set, opened, and filled up to three quarters of its volume with tap water.

Close the jar and shake it carefully until all the powder is dissolved. Pour the contents into a drinking glass.

Fill the 13C-urea jar to the brim with water for a second and third time and add these contents to the drinking glass (total volume of tap water should be approximately 30 ml).

7.This test solution must now be drunk immediately by the patient, and the time of application must be noted.

8.Thirty minutes after administration of the test solution (point 7), collect the 30-minute-value samples in the two containers which are left in the test package (Label “Sampling time: 30-minute-value”), as described under steps 3 to 4. Use the bar-code labels marked “30-minute- value” for these samples.

9.Put the relevant bar-code label on the data sheet for patient documentation. Finally seal the package with the sticker.

10.The sample tubes have to be sent in the original packaging, for analysis, to a qualified laboratory.

Analysis of breath samples and testing specification for laboratories

The breath samples, collected in 10 ml glass- or plastic sample tubes, are analysed by isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS).

The analysis of the 13C/12C-ratio in carbon dioxide of breath is an integrated part of the diagnostic test Helicobacter Test INFAI. The accuracy of the test strongly depends on the quality of the breath analysis. The specification of breath analysis parameters like linearity, stability (reference gas precision), and precision of measurement are fundamental for the accuracy of the system.

It has to be ensured that the analysis is carried out by a qualified laboratory. The method validated in the application is as follows:

Sample preparation for (IRMS)

To determine the 13C/12C-ratio of carbon dioxide in breath by mass spectrometric analysis the carbon dioxide must be separated from the breath and introduced into the mass spectrometer. The automatic preparation system for isotope mass spectrometers which is dedicated for breath test analysis is based on a gas-chromatographic continuous flow separation technique.

Water is removed from the sample by means of a Nafion water trap or the gas-chromatographic preparation system that separates the individual gases in a gas chromatographic column with Helium as eluent. Passing the column the separated gas species of breath are detected by an ionisation detector. The fraction of carbon dioxide gas, identified by its characteristic retention time, is introduced into mass spectrometer.

Mass spectrometric analysis

To analyse the separated carbon dioxide sample gas its molecules must be ionised, formed into a beam, accelerated by an electric field, deflected in a magnetic field, and finally detected. These five processes take place in the analyser of a mass spectrometer, which consists of three separate sections: the source, flight tube, and collector. Ionisation, beam formation and acceleration all occur in the source, magnetic deflection takes place in the flight tube and detection takes place in the collector.

Sample inlet

For introduction of the carbon dioxide into the analyser many sample inlet systems are available. For breath test analysis the individual balancing of the carbon dioxide of the sample to a reference standard gas is essential. This ensures the high accuracy of this system, as calculation of the isotopic content in carbon dioxide is done with respect to an independent standard.

Specifications for determining 13C/12C-ratios

The breath test concept relies on the administration of a specifically 13C-labelled urea whose metabolite utilisation is monitored by measuring 13CO2 in the expired breath gas.

The mass spectrometer must be capable of:

Multiple replicate analyses:

Minimum of 3 replicate analyses of the same sample during operation

Security access:

Storing of operating parameters and of results under security access to

 

avoid later manipulation

Adjustment:

13C/12C-ratio with respect to Pee Dee Beliminate (PDB)

Sample loop:

< 200 µl

The principal tests to verify the specifications are linearity, stability (reference gas precision), and precision of measurement.

All mass spectrometers for breath analysis must comply with the following specifications:

Linearity:

≤ 0.5

‰ for breath samples varying between 1 % and 7 %

 

CO2-concentration

Stability:

≤ 0.2

‰ on 10 consecutive pulses

Precision of measurement:

≤ 0.3

‰ for 13C at natural abundance using a 10 ml breath sample tube

with 3 % CO2 breath concentration

Helicobacter pylori infection is present if the difference in 13C/12C of baseline-value and 30-minute- value exceeds 4.0 ‰.

Alternatively, any other suitable-validated method may be used, carried out by any objectively qualified laboratory.

7. MARKETING AUTHORISATION HOLDER

INFAI, Institut für biomedizinische Analytik & NMR-Imaging GmbH

Universitätsstraße 142

D-44799 Bochum

Germany

8. MARKETING AUTHORISATION NUMBER

EU/1/97/045/003

9. DATE OF FIRST AUTHORISATION/RENEWAL OF THE AUTHORISATION

Date of first authorisation: 14 August 1997

Date of latest renewal: 14 August 2007

10. DATE OF REVISION OF THE TEXT

Detailed information on this medicinal product is available on the website of the European Medicines Agency http://www.ema.europa.eu.

1. NAME OF THE MEDICINAL PRODUCT

Helicobacter Test INFAI 75 mg powder for oral solution

2. QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE COMPOSITION

One jar contains 75 mg of 13C-urea powder.

For the full list of excipients, see section 6.1.

3. PHARMACEUTICAL FORM

White, crystalline powder for oral solution.

4. CLINICAL PARTICULARS

4.1 Therapeutic indications

Helicobacter Test INFAI may be used for in vivo diagnosis of gastroduodenal Helicobacter pylori infection in:

-adults,

-adolescents, who are likely to have peptic ulcer disease.

This medicinal product is for diagnostic use only.

4.2 Posology and method of administration

This medicinal product should be administered by a healthcare professional and under appropriate medical supervision.

Posology

Helicobacter Test INFAI is a breath test for single administration. Patients from the age of 12 must take the contents of 1 jar with 75 mg.

Method of administration

For performance of the test, 200 ml 100 % orange juice or 1 g citric acid in 200 ml water for patients from the age of 12 and older (as a pre-administered test meal), as well as tap water (for dissolving the 13C-urea powder) are necessary.

The patient must have fasted for over 6 hours, preferably overnight. The test procedure takes approximately 40 minutes.

In case it is necessary to repeat the test procedure, this should not be done until the following day.

The suppression of Helicobacter pylori might give false negative results. Therefore the test shall be used after at least four weeks without systemic antibacterial therapy and two weeks after last dose of acid antisecretory agents. Both might interfere with the Helicobacter pylori status. This is especially important after Helicobacter eradication therapy.

It is important to follow the instructions for use adequately (see section 6.6), otherwise the reliability of the outcome will become questionable.

4.3 Contraindications

The test must not be used in patients with documented or suspected gastric infection or atrophic gastritis, which might interfere with the urea breath test (see section 4.2).

4.4 Special warnings and precautions for use

A positive test alone does not constitute indication for eradication therapy. Differential diagnosis with invasive endoscopic methods might be indicated in order to examine the presence of any other complicating conditions, e.g. ulcer, autoimmune gastritis and malignancies.

There is insufficient data on the diagnostic liability of the Helicobacter Test INFAI to recommend its use in patients with gastrectomy.

For children from the age of 3, Helicobacter Test INFAI for children aged 3 to 11 is available.

In individual cases of A-gastritis (atrophic gastritis) the breath test may have false positive results; other tests may be required to confirm the Helicobacter pylori status.

If the patient vomits during the test procedure, necessitating the repetition of the test, this should be done in fasted condition and not before the following day (see section 4.2).

4.5 Interaction with other medicinal products and other forms of interaction

Helicobacter Test INFAI will be affected by all treatments interfering with Helicobacter pylori status or urease activity.

4.6 Fertility, pregnancy and lactation

It is not expected that the test procedure may be harmful during pregnancy or lactation.

It is recommended to take notice of the product information of eradication therapy products for their use during pregnancy and lactation.

4.7 Effects on ability to drive and use machines

Helicobacter Test INFAI has no influence on the ability to drive and use machines.

4.8 Undesirable effects

None known.

Reporting of suspected adverse reactions

Reporting suspected adverse reactions after authorisation of the medicinal product is important. It allows continued monitoring of the benefit/risk balance of the medicinal product. Healthcare professionals are asked to report any suspected adverse reactions via the national reporting system listed in Appendix V.

4.9 Overdose

Due to the fact that only 75 mg of 13C-urea is delivered, an overdose is not expected.

5. PHARMACOLOGICAL PROPERTIES

5.1 Pharmacodynamic properties

Pharmacotherapeutic group: Other diagnostic agents, ATC code: VO4CX

For the amount of 75 mg 13C-urea, which is administered per unit in the course of the breath test, no pharmacodynamic activity is described.

After oral ingestion the labelled urea reaches the gastric mucosa. In the presence of Helicobacter pylori the 13C-urea is metabolised by the enzyme urease of Helicobacter pylori.

2H2N(13CO)NH2 + 2H2O Enzyme urease 4NH3 + 213CO2

The carbon dioxide diffuses into the blood vessels. From there it is transported as bicarbonate into the lung and liberated as 13CO2 with the exhaled air.

In the presence of bacterial urease the ratio of the 13C/12C-carbon isotopes is significantly changed. The portion of 13CO2 in the breath samples is determined by non-dispersive infrared spectrometry and stated as an absolute difference (∆δ-value) between the 00-minute- and the 30-minute-values.

Urease is produced in the stomach only by Helicobacter pylori. Other urease producing bacteria were seldom found in the gastric flora.

The cut off point for discriminating Helicobacter pylori-negative and positive patients is determined to

be ∆δ-value of 4 ‰, which means that an increase of the ∆δ-value by more than 4 ‰ indicates an infection. In comparison to bioptic diagnostics of an infection with Helicobacter pylori, the breath test achieved in clinical trials on 457 patients, a sensitivity in the range of 96.5 % to 97.9 % [95 %-CI: 94.05 %-99.72 %], and a specificity range from 96.7 % to 100 % [95 %-CI: 94.17 %-103.63 %].

In the absence of bacterial urease, the whole amount of the administered urea after absorption from the gastrointestinal tract will be metabolised like the endogenous urea. Ammonia which is produced as described above by the bacterial hydrolysis is included into the metabolism as NH4+.

5.2 Pharmacokinetic properties

The orally applied 13C-urea is metabolised to carbon dioxide and ammonia or is integrated into the body’s own urea cycle. Any increase in 13CO2 will be measured by isotopic analysis.

Absorption and distribution of 13CO2 is faster than the urease reaction. Therefore, the rate-limiting step in the whole process is the cleavage of 13C-urea by Helicobacter's urease.

Only in Helicobacter pylori-positive patients does the administration of 75 mg labelled urea lead to a significant increase of 13CO2 in the breath sample within the first 30 minutes.

5.3 Preclinical safety data

No concerns in relation to the clinical use of the product.

6. PHARMACEUTICAL PARTICULARS

6.1 List of excipients

None.

6.2 Incompatibilities

Not applicable.

6.3 Shelf-life

3 years

6.4 Special precautions for storage

Do not store above 25°C.

6.5 Nature and contents of container

A test set contains 50 jars with the additional components:

No.

Component

Quantity

Jar (10 ml volume, polystyrene with polyethylene snap cap)

containing 75 mg 13C-urea powder for oral solution

Data sheet for patient documentation

Package leaflet

Page of barcode labels and sticker

6.6 Special precautions for disposal and other handling

1.The test is to be performed in the presence of a qualified person.

2.Each patient should be documented according to the provided data sheet. It is recommended to perform the test with the patient being in a resting position.

3.The test starts with the collection of samples for the determination of baseline-value (00-minute- value):

Take the straw and the breath sample containers (tubes or breath bag) with the label “Sampling time: 00-minute-value” out of the test set.

Remove the stopper from one of the breath sample containers (tube or breath bag), unwrap the straw and place the straw into the container.

Now the patient breathes gently through the straw into the breath sample container.

By continuously breathing the patient must pull out the straw and immediately close the breath sample container (tube or breath bag) with its stopper.

(If the breath sample container remains open for more than 30 seconds, the test result might be falsified.)

Hold the sample tube or breath bag upright and stick the bar-code label marked “00-minute-value” on the container.

4.Fill up the second sample tube (Label “Sampling time: 00-minute-value”) with breath by following the same procedure. For infrared analysis, only one breath bag is used.

5.Now 200 ml of 100 % orange juice or 1 g citric acid in 200 ml water must be drunk by the patient without delay.

6.Now the preparation of the test solution follows:

The jar labelled 13C-urea powder” is taken from the test set, opened, and filled up to three quarters of its volume with tap water.

Close the jar and shake it carefully until all the powder is dissolved. Pour the contents into a drinking glass.

Fill the 13C-urea jar to the brim with water for a second and third time and add these contents to the drinking glass (total volume of tap water should be approximately 30 ml).

7.This test solution must now be drunk immediately by the patient, and the time of application must be noted.

8.Thirty minutes after administration of the test solution (point 7), collect the 30-minute-value samples in the breath sample container (tube or breath bags) (Label “Sampling time: 30-minute-

value”), as described under steps 3 to 4. Use the bar-code labels marked “30-minute-value” for these samples.

9.Put the relevant bar-code label on the data sheet for patient documentation. Finally seal the package with the sticker.

10.The breath sample containers (tube or breath bags) have to be sent for analysis, to a qualified laboratory.

Analysis of breath samples and testing specification for laboratories for infrared analyzer or mass spectrometry (IRMS)

Infrared spectroscopy (NDIR)

The breath samples, collected in 100 ml breath bags, are analysed by non-dispersive infrared spectrometry (NDIR).

The analysis of the 13C/12C-ratio in carbon dioxide of breath is an integrated part of the diagnostic test Helicobacter Test INFAI. The accuracy of the test strongly depends on the quality of the breath analysis. The specification of breath analysis parameters like linearity, stability (reference gas precision), and precision of measurement are fundamental for the accuracy of the system.

It has to be ensured that the analysis is carried out by a qualified laboratory. It is recommended to measure as soon as possible after the breath collection, in any case not later than 4 weeks.

The method validated in the application is as follows:

Sample preparation for Infrared Spectroscopy (NDIR)

The determination of 13C/12C-ratio in the carbon dioxide of the breath samples is carried out directly in the breath. The breath from the bags will be introduced into the NDIR spectrometer using a variable gas pump. The water content of the breath sample will be kept mostly constant through Nafion water trap. For calibration and measurement necessary CO2-free air (zero-gas) will be produced via an integrated CO2-absorber in the analysator.

Infrared spectroscopic analysis

To analyse the carbon dioxide in breath a broad band infrared radiation bunch emitted by an infrared radiation source is alternately sent through the measuring chamber and a reference chamber by means of a beam chopper. The modulated infrared beams then enter the infrared detectors, which are double layer transmission detectors with a front, and a rear chamber each filled with one of the isotopicly pure gases (13CO2 or 12CO2, respectively) to be measured. The infrared radiation in the measuring chamber is weakened by the gas component to be measured. Thus the radiation equilibrium between measuring and comparative beam is disturbed. In consequence there is a temperature fluctuation, which in its turn causes a fluctuating pressure in the front chamber of the infrared detector. A membrane capacitor connected with this chamber, which is exposed to a high resistance direct voltage, transforms these pressure fluctuations into an alternating voltage, which is a measure of the isotopic composition of breath carbon dioxide.

Sample Inlet

A semi-automatic sample inlet system injects the measuring gas in definite amounts into the zero gas circulating in the gas circuit of the infrared spectrometer. This enables measurement of the 13C/12C-ratio at any CO2 concentration above 1 %.

Specifications for determining 13C/12C-ratios

The breath test concept is based upon the oral administration of 13C-labelled urea whose enzymatic hydrolysis is monitored by measuring 13CO2 in breath using non-dispersive infrared spectrometry.

• Infrared spectrometers for breath analysis must comply with the following specifications:

Multiple replicate analyses:

Minimum of 3 replicate analyses of the same sample during operation

Security access:

Storing of operating parameters and of results under security access to

 

avoid later manipulation

For verifying the specifications linearity, stability, and precision of measurement have to be tested.

Zero point adjustment of the detectors by means of the zero gas generated in the spectrometer. Endpoint adjustment of the detectors by means of calibration gases of precisely known concentration.

Linearity:

≤ 0.5

‰ for breath samples varying between 1 % and 7 %

 

CO2-concentration

Stability:

≤ 0.3

‰ at 10 consecutive pulses

Precision of measurement:

≤ 0.5

‰ for 13C at natural abundance using a 100 ml breath bag with

3 % CO2 breath concentration

Helicobacter pylori infection is present if the difference in 13C/12C of baseline-value and 30-minute- value exceeds 4.0 ‰.

Alternatively, any other suitable-validated method may be used, carried out by any objectively qualified laboratory.

Mass spectrometry (IRMS)

The breath samples, collected in 10 ml glass- or plastic sample tubes, are analysed by isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS).

The analysis of the 13C/12C-ratio in carbon dioxide of breath is an integrated part of the diagnostic test Helicobacter Test INFAI. The accuracy of the test strongly depends on the quality of the breath analysis. The specification of breath analysis parameters like linearity, stability (reference gas precision), and precision of measurement are fundamental for the accuracy of the system.

It has to be ensured that the analysis is carried out by a qualified laboratory. The method validated in the application is as follows:

Sample preparation for (IRMS)

To determine the 13C/12C-ratio of carbon dioxide in breath by mass spectrometric analysis the carbon dioxide must be separated from the breath and introduced into the mass spectrometer. The automatic preparation system for isotope mass spectrometers which is dedicated for breath test analysis is based on a gas-chromatographic continuous flow separation technique.

Water is removed from the sample by means of a Nafion water trap or the gas-chromatographic preparation system that separates the individual gases in a gas chromatographic column with Helium as eluent. Passing the column the separated gas species of breath are detected by an ionisation detector. The fraction of carbon dioxide gas, identified by its characteristic retention time, is introduced into mass spectrometer.

Mass spectrometric analysis

To analyse the separated carbon dioxide sample gas its molecules must be ionised, formed into a beam, accelerated by an electric field, deflected in a magnetic field, and finally detected. These five

processes take place in the analyser of a mass spectrometer, which consists of three separate sections: the source, flight tube, and collector. Ionisation, beam formation and acceleration all occur in the source, magnetic deflection takes place in the flight tube and detection takes place in the collector.

Sample inlet

For introduction of the carbon dioxide into the analyser many sample inlet systems are available. For breath test analysis the individual balancing of the carbon dioxide of the sample to a reference standard gas is essential. This ensures the high accuracy of this system, as calculation of the isotopic content in carbon dioxide is done with respect to an independent standard.

Specifications for determining 13C/12C-ratios

The breath test concept relies on the administration of a specifically 13C-labelled urea whose metabolite utilisation is monitored by measuring 13CO2 in the expired breath gas.

The mass spectrometer must be capable of:

Multiple replicate analyses:

Minimum of 3 replicate analyses of the same sample during operation

Security access:

Storing of operating parameters and of results under security access to

 

avoid later manipulation

Adjustment:

13C/12C-ratio with respect to Pee Dee Beliminate (PDB)

Sample loop:

< 200 µl

The principal tests to verify the specifications are linearity, stability (reference gas precision), and precision of measurement.

All mass spectrometers for breath analysis must comply with the following specifications:

Linearity:

≤ 0.5

‰ for breath samples varying between 1 % and 7 %

 

CO2-concentration

Stability:

≤ 0.2

‰ on 10 consecutive pulses

Precision of measurement:

≤ 0.3

‰ for 13C at natural abundance using a 10 ml breath sample tube

with 3 % CO2 breath concentration

Helicobacter pylori infection is present if the difference in 13C/12C of baseline-value and 30-minute- value exceeds 4.0 ‰.

Alternatively, any other suitable-validated method may be used, carried out by any objectively qualified laboratory.

7. MARKETING AUTHORISATION HOLDER

INFAI, Institut für biomedizinische Analytik & NMR-Imaging GmbH

Universitätsstraße 142

D-44799 Bochum

Germany

8. MARKETING AUTHORISATION NUMBERS

EU/1/97/045/005

9. DATE OF FIRST AUTHORISATION/RENEWAL OF THE AUTHORISATION

Date of first authorisation: 14 August 1997

Date of latest renewal: 14 August 2007

10. DATE OF REVISION OF THE TEXT

Detailed information on this medicinal product is available on the website of the European Medicines Agency http://www.ema.europa.eu.

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