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Wakix (pitolisant) – Summary of product characteristics - N07XX11

Updated on site: 10-Oct-2017

Medication nameWakix
ATC CodeN07XX11
Substancepitolisant
ManufacturerBioprojet Pharma

This medicinal product is subject to additional monitoring. This will allow quick identification of new safety information. Healthcare professionals are asked to report any suspected adverse reactions. See section 4.8 for how to report adverse reactions.

1.NAME OF THE MEDICINAL PRODUCT

Wakix 4.5 mg film-coated tablets

Wakix 18 mg film-coated tablets

2.QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE COMPOSITION

Wakix 4.5 mg film-coated tablet

Each tablet contains 5 mg of pitolisant hydrochloride equivalent to 4.45 mg of pitolisant.

Wakix 18 mg film-coated tablet

Each tablet contains 20 mg of pitolisant hydrochloride equivalent to 17.8 mg of pitolisant.

For the full list of excipients, see section 6.1.

3.PHARMACEUTICAL FORM

Film-coated tablet

Wakix 4.5 mg film-coated tablet

White, round, biconvex film-coated tablet, 3.7 mm diameter, marked with “5” on one side.

Wakix 18 mg film-coated tablet

White, round, biconvex film-coated tablet, 7.5 mm diameter marked with “20” on one side.

4.CLINICAL PARTICULARS

4.1Therapeutic indications

Wakix is indicated in adults for the treatment of narcolepsy with or without cataplexy (see also section 5.1).

4.2Posology and method of administration

Treatment should be initiated by a physician experienced in the treatment of sleep disorders.

Posology

Wakix should be used at the lowest effective dose, depending on individual patient response and tolerance, according to an up-titration scheme, without exceeding the dose of 36 mg/day:

-Week 1: initial dose of 9 mg (two 4.5 mg tablets) per day.

-Week 2: the dose may be increased to 18 mg (one 18 mg tablet) per day or decreased to 4.5 mg (one 4.5 mg tablet) per day.

-Week 3: the dose may be increased to 36 mg (two 18 mg tablets) per day.

At any time the dose can be decreased (down to 4.5 mg per day) or increased (up to 36 mg per day) according to the physician assessment and the patient’s response.

The total daily dose should be administered as a single dose in the morning during breakfast.

Maintenance of efficacy

As long-term efficacy data are limited (see section 5.1), the continued efficacy of treatment should be regularly evaluated by the physician.

Special populations

Elderly

Limited data are available in elderly. Therefore, dosing should be adjusted according to their renal and hepatic status.

Renal impairment

In patients with renal impairment, the maximum daily dose should be 18 mg.

Hepatic impairment

In patients with moderate hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh B) two weeks after initiation of treatment, the daily dose can be increased without exceeding a maximal dose of 18 mg (see section 5.2). Pitolisant is contra-indicated in patients with severe hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh C) (see section 4.3).

No dosage adjustment is required in patients with mild hepatic impairment.

Paediatric population

The safety and efficacy of pitolisant in children aged from 0 to 18 years old have not yet been established. No data are available.

Method of administration

For oral use.

4.3Contraindications

Hypersensitivity to the active substance or to any of the excipients listed in section 6.1.

Severe hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh C).

Breastfeeding (see section 4.6).

4.4Special warnings and precautions for use

Psychiatric disorders

Pitolisant should be administered with caution in patients with history of psychiatric disorders such as severe anxiety or severe depression with suicidal ideation risk.

Hepatic or renal impairment

Pitolisant should be administered with caution in patients with either renal impairment or moderate hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh B) and dosing regimen should be adapted according to section 4.2.

Gastrointestinal disorders

Gastric disorders reactions have been reported with pitolisant, therefore it should be administered with caution in patients with acid related gastric disorders (see section 4.8) or when co-administered with gastric irritants such as corticosteroids or NSAID.

Nutrition disorders

Pitolisant should be administered with caution in patients with severe obesity or severe anorexia (see section 4.8). In case of significant weight change, treatment should be re-evaluated by the physician.

Cardiac disorders

In two dedicated QT studies, supra-therapeutic doses of pitolisant (3-6-times the therapeutic dose, that is 108 mg to 216 mg) produced mild to moderate prolongation of QTc interval (10-13 ms). In clinical trials, no specific cardiac safety signal was identified at therapeutic doses of pitolisant. Nevertheless, patients with cardiac disease, co-medicated with other QT-prolonging medicinal products or known to increase the risk of repolarization disorders, or co-medicated with medicinal products that significantly increase pitolisant Cmax and AUC ratio (see section 4.5) or patients with severe renal or moderate hepatic impairment (see section 4.4) should be carefully monitored (see section 4.5).

Epilepsy

Convulsions were reported at high doses in animal models (see section 5.3). In clinical trials, one epilepsy aggravation was reported in one epileptic patient. Caution should be taken for patients with severe epilepsy.

Women of childbearing potential

Women of childbearing potential have to use effective contraception during treatment and at least up to 21 days after treatment discontinuation (based on pitolisant/metabolites half-life). Pitolisant may reduce the effectiveness of hormonal contraceptives. Therefore, an alternative method of effective contraception should be used if the woman patient is using hormonal contraceptives (see sections 4.5 and 4.6).

Drug-drug interactions

The combination of pitolisant with substrates of CYP3A4 and having a narrow therapeutic margin should be avoided (see section 4.5).

Rebound effect

No rebound effect was reported during clinical trials. However, treatment discontinuation should be monitored.

4.5Interaction with other medicinal products and other forms of interaction

Antidepressants

Tri or tetracyclic antidepressants (e.g. imipramine, clomipramine, mirtazapine) may impair the efficacy of pitolisant because they display histamine H1-receptor antagonist activity and possibly cancel the effect of endogenous histamine released in brain by the treatment.

Anti-histamines

Anti-histamines (H1-receptor antagonists) crossing the haemato-encephalic barrier (e.g. pheniramine maleate, chlorpheniramine, diphenydramine, promethazine, mepyramine) may impair the efficacy of pitolisant.

QT-prolonging substances or known to increase the risk of repolarization disorders

Combination with pitolisant should be made with a careful monitoring (see section 4.4).

Pharmacokinetic interactions

Medicinal products affecting pitolisant metabolism

-Enzyme inducers

Co-administration of pitolisant with rifampicin in multiple doses significantly decreases pitolisant mean Cmax and AUC ratio about 39% and 50%, respectively. Therefore, co-administration of pitolisant with potent CYP3A4 inducers (e.g. rifampicin, phenobarbital, carbamazepine, phenytoin) should be done with caution. With St John’s Wort (Hypericum Perforatum), due to its strong CYP3A4 inducing effect, caution should be exercised when taken concurrently with pitolisant. A clinical monitoring should be made when both active substances are combined and, eventually a dosage adjustment during the combination and one week after the inducer treatment.

-CYP2D6 inhibitors

Co-administration of pitolisant with paroxetine significantly increases pitolisant mean Cmax and

AUC0—72h ratio about 47% and 105%, respectively. Given the 2-fold increase of pitolisant exposure, its coadministration with CYP2D6 inhibitors (e.g. paroxetine, fluoxetine, venlafaxine, duloxetine,

bupropion, quinidine, terbinafine, cinacalcet) should be done with caution. A dosage adjustment during the combination could eventually be considered.

Medicinal products that pitolisant may affect metabolism

-CYP3A4 and CYP2B6 substrates

Based on in vitro data, pitolisant and its main metabolites may induce CYP3A4 and CYP2B6 at therapeutic concentrations and by extrapolation, CYP2C, UGTs and P-gp. No clinical data on the magnitude of this interaction are available. Therefore, the combination of pitolisant with substrates of CYP3A4 and having a narrow therapeutic margin (e.g. immunosuppressants, docetaxel, kinase inhibitors, cisapride, pimozide, halofantrine) should be avoided (see section 4.4). With other CYP3A4, CYP2B6 (e.g. efavirenz, bupropion), CYP2C (e.g. repaglinide, phenytoin, warfarin), P-gp (e.g. dabigatran, digoxin) and UGT (e.g. morphine, paracetamol, irinotecan) susbtrates, caution should be made with a clinical monitoring of their efficacy.

With oral contraceptives, the combination with pitolisant should be avoided and a further reliable contraceptive method used.

-Substrates of OCT1

Pitolisant shows greater than 50% inhibition towards OCT1 (organic cation transporters 1) at 1.33 µM, the extrapolated IC50 of pitolisant is 0.795 µM.

Even if the clinical relevance of this effect is not established, caution is advised when pitolisant is administered with a substrate of OCT1 (e.g. metformin (biguanides)) (see section 5.2).

Paediatric population

Interaction studies have only been performed in adults.

4.6Fertility, pregnancy and lactation

Women of childbearing potential

Women of childbearing potential have to use effective contraception during treatment and at least up to 21 days after treatment discontinuation (based on pitolisant/metabolites half-life). Pitolisant/metabolites may reduce the effectiveness of hormonal contraceptives. Therefore, an alternative method of effective contraception should be used if the woman patient is using hormonal contraceptives (see section 4.5).

Pregnancy

There are no or limited amount of data from the use of pitolisant in pregnant women. Studies in animals have shown reproductive toxicity, including teratogenicity. In rats, pitolisant/metabolites were shown to cross the placenta (see section 5.3).

Pitolisant should not be used during pregnancy unless the potential benefit outweighs the potential risk for foetus.

Breast-feeding

Animal study has shown excretion of pitolisant/metabolites in milk. Therefore, breastfeeding is contraindicated during treatment with pitolisant (see section 4.3).

Fertility

Study in animals has shown effects on semen parameters, without a significant impact on reproductive performance in males and reduction on the percentage of live foetuses in treated females (see section 5.3).

4.7Effects on ability to drive and use machines

Pitolisant has minor influence on the ability to drive and use machines.

Patients with abnormal levels of sleepiness who take pitolisant should be advised that their level of wakefulness may not return to normal. Patients with excessive daytime sleepiness, including those taking pitolisant should be frequently reassessed for their degree of sleepiness and, if appropriate, advised to avoid driving or any other potentially dangerous activity.

4.8Undesirable effects

Summary of the safety profile

The most frequent adverse drug reactions (ADRs) reported with pitolisant were insomnia (8.4%), headache (7.7%), nausea (4.8%), anxiety (2.1%), irritability (1.8%), dizziness (1.4%), depression (1.3%), tremor (1.2%), sleep disorders (1.1%), fatigue (1.1%), vomiting (1.0%), vertigo (1.0%), dyspepsia (1.0%), weight increase (0.9%), abdominal pain upper (0.9%). The most serious ADRs are abnormal weight decrease (0.09%) and abortion spontaneous (0.09%).

Tabulated list of adverse reactions

The following adverse reactions have been reported with pitolisant during clinical studies enrolling more than 1094 patients in narcolepsy and other indications and are listed below as MedDRA preferred term by system organ class and frequency; frequencies are defined as: very common (≥1/10), common (≥1/100 to <1/10), uncommon (≥ 1/1,000 to <1/100), rare (≥1/10,000 to <1/1,000), very rare (<1/10,000); within each frequency group, adverse reactions are presented in order of decreasing seriousness:

 

Common

Uncommon

Rare

 

 

 

 

Infections and infestations

 

Sweating

 

Metabolism and nutrition

 

Decreased appetite

Anorexia

disorders

 

Increased appetite

Hyperphagia

 

 

Fluid retention

Appetite disorder

 

 

 

 

Psychiatric disorders

Insomnia

Agitation

Abnormal behaviour

 

Anxiety

Hallucination

Confusional state

 

Irritability

Hallucination visual,

Depressed mood

 

Depression

auditory

Excitability

 

Sleep disorder

Affect lability

Obsessive thoughts

 

 

Abnormal dreams

Dysphoria

 

 

Dyssomnia

Hypnopompic

 

 

Middle insomnia

hallucination

 

 

Initial insomnia

Depressive symptom

 

 

Terminal insomnia

Hypnagogic

 

 

Nervousness

hallucination

 

 

Tension

Mental impairment

 

 

Apathy

 

 

 

Nightmare

 

 

 

Restlessness

 

 

 

Panic Attack

 

 

 

Libido decreased

 

 

 

Libido increased

 

Nervous system disorders

Headache

Dyskinesia

Loss of consciousness

 

Dizziness

Balance disorder

Tension headache

 

Tremor

Cataplexy

Memory impairment

 

 

Disturbance in attention

Poor sleep quality

 

 

Dystonia

 

 

 

On and off phenomenon

 

 

 

Hypersomnia

 

 

 

Migraine

 

 

 

Psychomotor

 

 

 

hyperactivity

 

 

 

Restless Legs Syndrome

 

 

 

Somnolence

 

 

 

Epilepsy

 

 

 

Bradykinesia

 

 

 

Paresthesia

 

Eye disorders

 

Visual acuity reduced

 

 

 

Blepharospasm

 

 

 

 

 

Ear and labyrinth disorders

Vertigo

Tinnitus

 

 

 

 

 

Cardiac disorders

 

Extrasystoles

 

 

 

Bradycardia

 

Vascular disorders

 

Hypertension

 

 

 

Hypotension

 

 

 

Hot flush

 

Respiratory, thoracic and

 

Yawning

 

mediastinal disorders

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gastrointestinal disorders

Nausea

Dry mouth

Abdominal distension

 

Vomiting

Abdominal pain

Dysphagia

 

Dyspepsia

Diarrhoea

Flatulence

 

 

Abdominal discomfort

Odynophagia

 

 

Abdominal pain upper

Enterocolitis

 

 

Constipation

 

 

 

Gastrooesophageal

 

 

 

reflux disease

 

 

 

Gastritis

 

 

 

Gastrointestinal pain

 

 

 

Hyperacidity

 

 

 

Paraesthesia oral

 

 

 

Stomach discomfort

 

 

 

 

 

Skin and subcutaneous

 

Erythema

Toxic skin eruption

tissue disorders

 

Pruritus

Photosensitivity

 

 

Rash

 

 

 

Hyperhidrosis

 

Musculoskeletal and

 

Arthralgia

Neck pain

connective tissue disorders

 

Back pain

Musculoskeletal chest

 

 

Muscle rigidity

pain

 

 

Muscular weakness

 

 

 

Musculoskeletal pain

 

 

 

Myalgia

 

 

 

Pain in extremity

 

Renal and urinary disorders

 

Pollakiuria

 

 

 

 

 

Pregnancy, puerperium and

 

 

Abortion spontaneous

perinatal conditions

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Reproductive system and

 

Metrorrhagia

 

breast disorders

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

General disorders and

Fatigue

Asthenia

Pain

administration site

 

Chest Pain

Night sweats

conditions

 

Feeling Abnormal

Sense of oppression

 

 

Malaise

 

 

 

Oedema

 

 

 

Peripheral oedema

 

 

 

 

 

Investigations

 

Weight increased

Creatine

 

 

Weight decreased

phosphokinase

 

 

Hepatic enzymes

increased

 

 

increased

 

 

 

Electrocardiogram QT

General physical

 

 

prolonged

condition abnormal

 

 

Heart rate increased

Electrocardiogram

 

 

Gamma-

repolarisation

 

 

glutamyltransferase

abnormality

 

 

increased

Electrocardiogram T

 

 

 

wave inversion

Description of selected adverse reactions

 

 

Headache and insomnia

During clinical studies, episodes of headache and insomnia have been reported (7.7 % to 8.4%). Most of these adverse reactions were mild to moderate. If symptoms persist a reduced daily dose or discontinuation should be considered.

Gastric disorders

Gastric disorders caused by hyperacidity have been reported during clinical studies in 3.5% of the patients receiving pitolisant. These effects were mostly mild to moderate. If they persist a corrective treatment with proton pump inhibitor could be initiated.

Reporting of suspected adverse reactions

Reporting suspected adverse reactions after authorisation of the medicinal product is important. It allows continued monitoring of the benefit/risk balance of the medicinal product. Healthcare

professionals are asked to report any suspected adverse reactions via the national reporting system listed in Appendix V.

4.9Overdose

Symptoms

Symptoms of Wakix overdose may include headache, insomnia, irritability, nausea and abdominal pain.

Management

In case of overdose, hospitalisation and monitoring of the vital functions are recommended. There is no clearly identified antidote.

5.PHARMACOLOGICAL PROPERTIES

5.1Pharmacodynamic properties

Pharmacotherapeutic group: Other nervous system drugs, ATC code: N07XX11.

Mechanism of action

Pitolisant is a potent, orally active histamine H3-receptor antagonist/inverse agonist which, via its blockade of histamine auto-receptors enhances the activity of brain histaminergic neurons, a major arousal system with widespread projections to the whole brain. Pitolisant also modulates various neurotransmitter systems, increasing acetylcholine, noradrenaline and dopamine release in the brain. However no increase in dopamine release in the striatal complex including nucleus accumbens was evidenced for pitolisant.

Pharmacodynamic effects

In narcoleptic patients with or without cataplexy, pitolisant improves the level and duration of wakefulness and daytime alertness assessed by objective measures of ability to sustain wakefulness (e.g. Maintenance of Wakefulness Test (MWT)) and attention (e.g. Sustained Attention to Response Task (SART)).

Clinical efficacy and safety

Narcolepsy (with or without cataplexy) is a chronic condition. The effectiveness of pitolisant up to 36 mg once a day, for the treatment of narcolepsy with or without cataplexy was established in two main, 8 weeks, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group trials (Harmony I and Harmony CTP). Harmony Ibis, study with a similar design, was limited to 18 mg once a day. To date, there are limited amount of data from an open label study on long term efficacy of Wakix in this indication.

The pivotal study (Harmony 1), double-blind, randomized, vs placebo and modafinil (400 mg/day), parallel group studies with flexible dose adaptation, included 94 patients (31 patients treated with pitolisant, 30 with placebo and 33 with modafinil). Dosage was initiated at 9 mg once a day and was increased, according to efficacy response and tolerance to 18 mg or 36 mg once a day per 1-week interval. Most patients (60%) reached the 36 mg once a day dosage. To assess the efficacy of pitolisant on Excessive Daytime Sleepiness (EDS), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) score was used as primary efficacy criterion. The results with pitolisant were significantly superior to those in the placebo group (mean difference: -3.33; 95%CI [-5.83 to -0.83]; p < 0.05) but did not differ significantly from the

results in the modafinil group (mean difference: 0.12; 95%CI [-2.5 to 2.7]). The waking effect of the two active substances was established at similar rates (Figure 1).

Figure 1: Changes in Epworth Sleepiness Scale Score (ESS) (mean ± SEM) from Baseline to week 8 in Harmony 1 study

The effect on Epworth was supported in two laboratory tests of vigilance and attention (Maintenance of Wakefulness Test (MWT) (p=0.044) and Sustained Attention to Response (SART) (p=0.053, almost but not significant)).

Cataplexy attacks frequency in patients displaying this symptom was decreased significantly (p=0.034) with pitolisant (-65%) compared to placebo (-10%). The daily cataplexy rate (geometric means) was 0.52 at baseline and 0.18 at final visit for pitolisant and 0.43 at baseline and 0.39 at final visit for placebo, with a rate ration rR=0.38 [0.16 ; 0.93] (p=0.034).

The second pivotal study (Harmony Ibis) included 165 patients (67 treated with pitolisant, 33 with placebo and 65 with modafinil). The study design was similar to study Harmony I except that the maximum dose for pitolisant reached by 75% of patients was 18 mg once a day instead of 36 mg in Harmony I. As an important unbalance led to comparison of results with or without cluster grouping of sites, the most conservative approach showed non-significant ESS score decrease with pitolisant compared to placebo (pitolisant-placebo=-1.94 with p=0.065). Results from cataplexy rate at 18 mg once a day were not consistent with those of the first pivotal study (36 mg once a day).

Improvement of the two objective tests of wakefulness and attention, MWT and SART, with pitolisant was significant versus placebo (p=0.009 and p=0.002 respectively) and non-significant versus modafinil (p=0.713 and p=0.294 respectively).

Harmony CTP, a supportive double blind, randomized, parallel group study of pitolisant versus placebo, was designed to establish pitolisant efficacy in patients with high frequency cataplexy in narcolepsy. The primary efficacy endpoint was the change in the average number of cataplexy attacks per week between the 2 weeks of baseline and the 4 weeks of stable treatment period at the end of study. 105 narcoleptic patients with high frequency weekly cataplexy rates at baseline were included (54 patients treated with pitolisant and 51 with placebo). Dosage was initiated at 4.5 mg once a day and was increased, according to efficacy response and tolerance to 9 mg, 18 mg or 36 mg once a day per 1-week interval. Most patients (65%) reached the 36 mg once a day dosage.

On the primary efficacy endpoint, Weekly Rate of Cataplexy episodes (WRC), the results with pitolisant were significantly superior to those in the placebo group (p < 0.0001), with a progressive 64% decrease from baseline to end of treatment (Figure 2). At baseline, the geometric mean of WRC was 7.31 (median=6.5 [4.5; 12]) and 9.15 (median=8.5 [5.5; 15.5]) in the placebo and pitolisant groups respectively. During the stable period (until the end of treatment), geometric mean WRC decreased to 6.79 (median=6 [3; 15]) and 3.28 (median=3 [1.3; 6]) in the placebo and pitolisant groups respectively in patients who had experienced at least one episode of cataplexy. The observed WRC in pitolisant group was about half of WRC in the placebo group: the effect size of pitolisant compared with placebo was summarized by the ratio rate rR(Pt/Pb), rR=0.512; 95%CI [0.435 to 0.603]; p < 0.0001). The effect size of pitolisant compared with placebo based on a model for WRC based on BOCF with centre as a fixed effect was 0.581, 95%CI [0.493 to 0.686]; p<0.0001.

Figure 2: Changes in weekly cataplexy episodes (geometric mean) from Baseline to week 7 in Harmony CTP study

*p<0.0001 vs placebo

The effect of pitolisant on EDS was also assessed in this population using the ESS score. In the pitolisant group, ESS decreased significantly between baseline and the end of treatment compared to placebo with an observed mean change of -1.9 ± 4.3 and -5.4 ± 4.3 (mean ± sd) for placebo and pitolisant respectively, (p<0.0001) (Figure 3). This effect on EDS was confirmed by the results on

Maintenance of Wakefulness Test (MWT). The geometric mean of the ratios (MWTFinal/MWTBaseline) was 1.8 (95%CI 1.19; 2.71, p=0.005). The MWT value in the pitolisant group was 80% higher than in

the placebo group.

Figure 3: Changes in Epworth Sleepiness Scale Score (ESS) (mean ± SEM) from Baseline to week 7 in Harmony CTP study

Paediatric population

The European Medicines Agency has deferred the obligation to submit the results of studies with Wakix in one or more subsets of the paediatric population in narcolepsy with or without cataplexy (see section 4.2 for information on paediatric use).

5.2Pharmacokinetic properties

The exposure to pitolisant in healthy volunteers was assessed in studies involving more than 200 subjects that received doses of pitolisant in single administration up to 216 mg and for a duration up to 28 days.

Absorption

Pitolisant is well and rapidly absorbed with peak plasma concentration reached approximately three hours after administration.

Distribution

Pitolisant exhibits high serum protein binding (>90%) and demonstrates approximately equal distribution between red blood cells and plasma.

Biotransformation

The metabolisation of pitolisant in humans is not completely characterized. The available data show that the major non-conjugated metabolites are hydroxylated derivatives in several positions. The 5- aminovaleric acid is the major phase I inactive metabolite and is found in urine and serum. It is formed under the action of CYP3A4 and CYP2D6. Several conjugated metabolites were identified, the major ones (inactive) being a glycine conjugate of the acid metabolite of O-dealkylated desaturated pitolisant and a glucuronide of a ketone metabolite of monohydroxy desaturated pitolisant.

On liver microsomes, pitolisant does not significantly inhibit the activities of the cytochromes CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2C8, CYP2B6, CYP2E1 or CYP3A4 and of uridine diphosphate glucuronosyl transferases isoforms UGT1A1, UGT1A4, UGT1A6, UGT1A9 and UGT2B7 up to the concentration of 13.3 µM, a level considerably higher than the levels achieved with therapeutic dose. Pitolisant is an inhibitor of CYP2D6 with moderate potency (IC50 = 2.6 µM).

Pitolisant induces CYP3A4, CYP1A2 and CYP2B6 in vitro. Clinically relevant interactions are expected with CYP3A4 and CYP2B6 substrates and by extrapolation, UGTs, CYP2C and P-gp substrates (see section 4.5).

In vitro studies indicate that pitolisant is neither a substrate nor an inhibitor of human P-glycoprotein and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP). Pitolisant is not a substrate of OATP1B1, OATP1B3. Pitolisant is not a significant inhibitor of OAT1, OAT3, OCT2, OATP1B1, OATP1B3, MATE1, or MATE2K at the tested concentration. Pitolisant shows greater than 50% inhibition towards OCT1 (organic cation transporters 1) at 1.33 µM, the extrapolated IC50 of pitolisant is 0.795 µM (see section 4.5).

Elimination

Pitolisant has a plasma half-life of 10-12 hours. Upon repeated administrations, the steady state is achieved after 5-6 days of administration leading to an increased serum level around 100%. Inter individual variability is rather high, some volunteers showing outlier high profile (without tolerance issues).

The elimination is mainly achieved via urine (approximately 63%) through an inactive non conjugated metabolite (BP2.951) and a glycine conjugated metabolite. 25% of the dose is excreted through expired air and a small fraction (<3%) recovered in faeces where the amount of pitolisant or BP2.951 was negligible.

Linearity/non-linearity

When pitolisant dose is doubled from 27 to 54 mg, AUC0-∞ is increased by about 2.3.

Special populations

Elderly

In 68 to 80 years old patients the pharmacokinetics of pitolisant is not different compared to younger patients (18 to 45 years of age). Above 80 years old, kinetics show a slight variation without clinical relevance. Limited data are available in elderly. Therefore, dosing should be adjusted according to their renal hepatic status (see section 4.2 and 4.4).

Renal impairment

In patients with impaired renal function (stages 2 to 4 according to the international classification of chronic kidney disease, i.e. creatinine clearance between 15 and 89 ml/min), Cmax and AUC tended to be increased by a factor of 2.5 without any impact on half-life (see section 4.2).

Hepatic impairment

In patients with mild hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh A), there was no significant changes in pharmacokinetics compared with normal healthy volunteers. In patients with moderate hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh B), AUC increased by a factor 2.4, while half-life doubled (see section 4.2). Pitolisant pharmacokinetics after repeated administration in patients with hepatic impairment has not been evaluated yet.

Race

The effect of race on metabolism of pitolisant has not been evaluated.

5.3Preclinical safety data

After 1 month in mice, 6 months in rats and 9 months in monkeys, no adverse effect level (NOAEL) were 75, 30 and 12 mg/kg/day, p.o., respectively, providing safety margins of 9, 1 and 0.4, respectively when compared to the drug exposure at therapeutic dose in human. In rats, transient reversible convulsive episodes occurred at Tmax , that may be attributable to a metabolite abundant in

this species but not in humans. In monkeys, at the highest doses, transient CNS related clinical signs including emesis, tremors and convulsions were reported. At the highest doses, no histopathological changes were recorded in monkeys and rats presented some limited histopathological changes in some organs (liver, duodenum, thymus, adrenal gland and lung).

Pitolisant was neither genotoxic nor carcinogenic.

Teratogenic effect of pitolisant was observed at maternally toxic doses (teratogenicity safety margins < 1 in rats and in rabbits). At high doses, pitolisant induced sperm morphology abnormalities and decreased motility without any significant effect on fertility indexes in male rats and it decreased the percentage of live conceptuses and increased post-implantation loss in female rats (safety margin of 1). It caused a delay in post-natal development (safety margin of 1).

Pitolisant/metabolites were shown to cross the placenta barrier in animals.

Juvenile toxicity studies in rats revealed that the administration of pitolisant at high doses induced a dose related mortality and convulsive episode that may be attributable to a metabolite abundant in rats but not in humans.

Pitolisant blocked hERG channel with an IC50 exceeding therapeutic concentrations and induced a slight QTc prolongation in dogs.

In preclinical studies, drug dependence and drug abuse liability studies were conducted in mice, monkeys and rats. However, no definitive conclusion could be drawn on tolerance, dependence and self-administration studies.

6.PHARMACEUTICAL PARTICULARS

6.1List of excipients

Tablet core

Microcrystalline cellulose

Crospovidone type A

Talc

Magnesium stearate

Colloidal anhydrous silica

Coating

Polyvinyl alcohol

Titanium dioxide (E171)

Macrogol 3350

Talc

6.2Incompatibilities

Not applicable.

6.3Shelf life

Wakix 4.5 mg tablet 30 months

Wakix 18 mg tablet 3 years

6.4Special precautions for storage

This medicinal product does not require any special storage conditions.

6.5Nature and contents of container

High density polyethylene (HDPE) bottle with a tamper evident, child-resistant, polypropylene screw cap fitted with desiccant (silica gel).

Bottle of 30 film-coated tablets.

6.6Special precautions for disposal

No special requirements.

7.MARKETING AUTHORISATION HOLDER

Bioprojet Pharma 9, rue Rameau 75002 Paris France

Tel: +33 (0)1 47 03 66 33 Fax: +33 (0)1 47 03 66 30 e-mail: contact@bioprojet.com

8.MARKETING AUTHORISATION NUMBER(S)

EU/1/15/1068/001

EU/1/15/1068/002

9.DATE OF FIRST AUTHORISATION/RENEWAL OF THE AUTHORISATION

Date of first authorisation:

10.DATE OF REVISION OF THE TEXT

Detailed information on this medicinal product is available on the website of the European Medicines Agency http://www.ema.europa.eu.

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